NHKニュースで学ぶ現代英語 2024年2月勉強分②

台湾 次期総統に民進党の頼清徳氏

【 語彙・表現 】
 ※cf. アメリカの大統領選挙の話題であれば、president-elect:次期大統領
 ex) Taiwan has a new president-elect, but his party has lost its majority in parliament.

 ex) Lai Ching-te won the presidency in Saturday’s elections in Taiwan.

・legislative body:立法機関(台湾では「立法院」)
 ex) Democratic Progressive Party, the DPP, will rank second in the legislative body.

 ex) The results show that Lai received 40 percent of the ballots cast ― that’s nearly 5.6 million votes.

・Kuomintang Party:台湾の「国民党」の英語名称
 ex) Hou Yu-ih of the largest opposition Kuomintang Party garnered nearly 4.7 million votes.

 ex) Voter turnout was 71.86 percent, down more than three percentage points from the last election held four years ago.

・President Tsai Ing-wen:蔡英文総統(台湾の現総統)
 ex) He has pledged to continue the policies of President Tsai Ing-wen, who fostered cooperation with the United States in an effort to counter Beijing.

【 豆知識:定冠詞"the"の省略 】

 ex) (ニュース文)Taiwan has a new president-elect, but his party has lost its majority in parliament.
  in parliamentは本来はin the parliamentと言うべきだが、theを省略して「議会で(の)」という慣用表現として使われている。

タイ政府 日本への観光客誘致に若者を派遣

【 語彙・表現 】
・have long been ~ing:長い間~してきた、以前から~してきた
・the boot/shoe is on the other foot:立場が逆転している(慣用表現)
 ex) Japan has long been providing assistance in Southeast Asia, and now the boot’s on the other foot.

be appointed ~:~に任命される
 ※asを続けたり、任務やポストに任命されると言う場合にはtoを続ける。e.g. She was appointed to the post of CEO.「CEOのポストに任命された」
 ex) On Monday, Unchaleeporn Prisawong was appointed a tourism coordinator of Hokuto in Yamanashi Prefecture.

tout:積極的に売り込む、宣伝する、押し売りする、うるさく勧誘する [táut]
 ex) As well as sharing local attractions on social media, she’ll attend events in Thailand touting Hokuto’s countryside charms.

・be modeled after ~:~を手本として作られる、~を手本・モデルとする
 ex) It's modeled after a similar one operated by Japan’s JICA.

【 豆知識:動名詞~ingを使うと意味が曖昧になることがある 】
“She will attend events in Thailand touting Hokuto’s countryside charms."



→She will attend events in Thailand, and she will tout Hokuto’s countryside charms.
→She will attend events in Thailand to tout Hokuto’s countryside charms.

能登半島 北側でも2m超の地盤隆起を確認

【 語彙・表現 】
 ex) Meanwhile, experts say the earthquake caused land upheavals of more than two meters in some places along the Noto Peninsula’s northern coast.

・terrain:地帯、地形 [təréin]
・be submerged:水中にある、水中に沈んだ
 ex) The group says rocky terrain that was likely submerged previously is now above water.

・seismic:極めて重大な [sáizmik]
・seismic shift:(地震による)地殻変動、劇的な転換、変化
 ex) “This is probably the first time that such large seismic shifts have been seen.”

・the kind of A that ~:~のような(種類の)A
・active fault:活断層
・active seabed fault:海底の活断層
 ex) “These findings will help us understand the kinds of earthquakes that may occur when active seabed faults shift.”


【 語彙・表現 】
・douse:(水などを)かける、ぶっかける、浴びせる [dáus]
・douse oneself in ~:~を自分自身にかける、浴びせる、かぶる
 ex) A group of men have braved freezing weather to douse themselves in cold water, in a ritual to pray for health and good fortune in central Japan’s Nagano Prefecture.

 ex) The men wore only red loincloths and straw crowns as they began their walk to the town’s Kumano Shrine.

 ※e.g. draw water from a well:井戸から水をくむ
 ex) They repeatedly drew water from wooden tubs placed along the way.

・what’s traditionally said to be ~:伝統的に~と言われているもの
・the coldest day of the year:1年で最も寒い日=大寒
 ex) The event is held on what’s traditionally said to be the coldest day of the year.

・full form:完全な形(ここでは「行事の通常開催」)
・for the first time in four years:4年間で初めて → 4年ぶりに
 ex) It returned to its full form for the first time in four years, after the COVID-19 pandemic.

・~, where ・・・:~、そしてそこで・・・
 ※関係副詞の非制限用法 参考「カンマやポーズの有無による意味の変化」
 ex) The men arrived at the shrine, where they dedicated their crowns and prayed for good fortune and a bountiful harvest.

・fend off:(攻撃から)身を守る、かわす、しのぐ、回避する、起こらないようにする
 ※e.g. fend off illness(es):病気にかからないようにする、予防する、fend off an attacker:襲撃者を回避する、fend off rumors:うわさを否定する
 ex) “This was my first time and I felt great. I did it to fend off illnesses.”

米 フーシ派をテロ組織に再指定

【 語彙・表現 】
rebel:反逆者、反抗者、(ここでは)反政府勢力 [rébl]
・launch an attack:攻撃を開始する
 ex) U.S. leaders have seen rebels backed by Iran launch attacks on ships around the Arabian Peninsula.

 ex) They’ve put the Houthis back on their list of “specially designated global terrorist” groups.

・commerce:商取引 [kɑ́mərs]
・navigation:航行、航海 [næ̀vigéiʃən]
 ex) “These attacks against international shipping have endangered mariners and disrupted the free flow of commerce and freedom of navigation.”

・in and around ~:~の周辺で
 ex) The Houthis are based in Yemen. Since November, they’ve launched dozens of attacks on commercial vessels in and around the Red Sea.

 ex) Over the past week, U.S. forces have been conducting strikes on Houthi positions to “degrade” their ability to carry out further attacks.

・bar A from ~:Aが~することを禁じる、Aが~することを妨げる
・provide A with B:AにBを提供する
 ex) The terrorist designation bars people and companies in the U.S. from providing the rebels with any support.

solidarity:連帯、結束 [sɑ̀lədǽrəti]
・a show of ~:~の表明、~のしるし
 ex) Houthi leaders say their strikes have been a show of solidarity with Palestinians in Gaza.

successor (to ~):(~の)後任(者)、後継者 [səksésər]
 ※cf. predecessor:前任(者)
 ※re-「後ろに」「戻す」+voke「呼ぶ、声に出す」→ 「(出した免許などを)取り消す、無効にする」といった意味もある。
 ex) Their successors in the Biden administration revoked the designations to respond to a humanitarian crisis in Yemen.

【 豆知識:"be based in" で在住を表せる 】
(be) based in ~:~に本拠地を置く

 ex) The guitarist is based in London. 「そのギタリストはロンドン在住です」
 ex) London-based guitarist「ロンドン在住のギタリスト」