NHKニュースで学ぶ現代英語 2023年4月勉強分③

岸田首相 ウクライナ訪問

【 語彙・表現 】
・raise one’s voice:声を上げる
・throughout ~:~の間中ずっと
・show one’s support for ~:~に対する支持を表明する
 ex) Japanese Prime Minister Kishida Fumio has raised his voice throughout the past year to show his support for an ally.

・back up:(発言や主張などが事実であることを)示す、証明する、裏付ける
・back A up with B:AをBで裏付ける、証明する
 ex) Now he's backed that up with a visit to Ukraine.

・steal the spotlight from ~:~からスポットライトを奪う →(主語が原因で)~がかすむ、主役を食う
 ex) He's stolen the spotlight from some rivals meeting in Russia.

・contribute:(資金などを)拠出する [kəntrbjuːt]
・lethal:殺傷能力がある [líθəl]
・trust fund:信託基金
 ex) We have decided to contribute 30 million dollars to supply non-lethal equipment through NATO trust funds.

・a commitment to ~ing:~する決意、約束、コミットメント
・the rule of law:法の支配
 ex) He says he conveyed his commitment to exercising leadership as a G7 chair to maintain the global order based on the rule of law.

 ex) He said he will prepare to send a clear, unified message at the summit.

【 豆知識:"Ally" の意味 】
ally:[(動)əlái] [(名)ǽlai]

the Allies:(限定された意味になり、多くの場合)世界大戦中の「連合国」

第2次世界大戦では、アメリカ、イギリス、フランス、ソ連、中国を中心に連合して戦った国々がthe Allies「連合国」
(ドイツ、イタリア、日本を中心とした国々はthe Axis / the Axis powers「枢軸国」)

ally with ~:~と組む、~と同盟を結ぶ
ex) After World War II, Japan allied with the United States. 「日本はアメリカと同盟を結んだ」

フィリピン 次期大統領にマルコス氏

【 語彙・表現 】
 ex) The independent organization that monitors the election says he garnered over 30 million votes.

・more than double the number of ~:~の2倍以上の数
・nearest rival:(ここでは)次点の候補
 ex) That’s more than double the number of his nearest rival.

 ex) Thirty-one million of our countrymen voted for unity. Thirty-one million of our countrymen have agreed to unify and help us unify the country.

・give a voice:声を与える → 発言する機会(場)を与える
・contribute:貢献する、寄与する [kəntrbjuːt]
 ex) Marcos said he would work for a government that gives a voice to everyone who wants to contribute.

・dictator:独裁者 [dkteitər]
 ex) Marcos is the son and namesake of a dictator who ruled the Philippines for two decades before being ousted in 1986.

 ex) On Tuesday, Marcos visited the grave of his late father in Manila.

・raise concerns:懸念や心配を提起する、疑問視する
 ex) Some have raised concerns that Marcos Jr. could follow his father’s authoritarian ways.


国連事務総長 世界的食料不足への対応訴え

【 語彙・表現 】
・The United Nations chief:国連事務総長
 ex) The United Nations chief says Moscow needs to act now to address the issues caused by its fighting, starting by releasing grains stuck at Ukrainian ports.

・amplify:増大させる [ǽmplifài]
 ※自動車の「アクセル」はacceleratorから来ているが、アメリカ英語ではgas pedalと呼ぶのが一般的。
 ex) The Russian invasion in Ukraine is amplifying and accelerating all these factors: climate change, COVID-19, and inequality.

・threaten to ~:~するおそれがある
・tip A into B:AをBに追いやる
・over the edge:限界を超えて、極限を超えて
・mass:大規模な [mǽs]
・famine:飢餓 [fǽmin]
・in a crisis:危機的状況で
 ex) It threatens to tip tens of millions of people over the edge into food insecurity, followed by malnutrition, mass hunger, and famine in a crisis that could last for years.

・fertilizer:肥料 ※豆知識参照
・shoot up:(価格などが)急騰する
 ex) The UN chief says prices for Russian food and fertilizer have also shot up due to recent shortages.

・teeter:ぐらつく、シーソーに乗る、シーソーのように交互に傾く [tíːtər]
・teeter on the edge of ~:~のふちでふらつく、~の危機に瀕する
 ※= teeter on the brink of ~
 ex) It’s left many poor countries teetering on the edge of catastrophe.

・a no-show:現れなかった人
 ex) More than 40 countries attended a UN meeting on the food crisis, but Russia was a no-show.

【 豆知識: “fertil~" の派生語】
 ex) Reading books about lots of different topics is a great way to fertilize your mind.

 ex) Prices for Russian food and fertilizer have also shot up due to recent shortages.

 ex) After the egg is fertilized, it takes about three weeks for the chick to hatch.

 ex. fertility treatment:不妊治療


ロシア国債 一部で“デフォルト”

【 語彙・表現 】
・under the weight of ~:~の重圧の下で、~に圧迫されて
 ex) Investors have seen Russians struggle under the weight of sanctions.

・meet/fulfill obligation:義務を果たす、債務を履行する
・putting it in default:それ(ここではロシア)を不履行状態に置く → 不履行に陥っている
 ex) A panel overseeing the derivatives market has ruled Russia failed to meet its obligations, putting it in default.

 ex) Russia was scheduled to pay the principal and interest in April on a dollar-denominated bond.

 ex) Creditors complained Russian officials took almost a month to pay.

 ※e.g. 10 million yen in retirement allowance:1000万円の退職金、5,000 dollars in unpaid overtime:5000ドルの未払い残業代
・accrue:(利子が)つく、(費用が)発生する [əkrúː]
 ex) They did not add almost 2 million dollars in interest that accrued during that delay.

 ex) Members of an industry panel known as the Credit Derivatives Determinations Committee upheld their claim.

 ex) Initially, Russian government officials tried to pay the note in rubles.

 ex) They eventually settled in dollars.

・bring A closer to B:AをBにより一層近づける
・external debt:対外債務
 ex) The troubles brought the country closer to its first major default on external debts in more than a century.

 ex) Some believe economic penalties for the invasion of Ukraine make such a failure inevitable.

【 豆知識:"default" の基本的な意味 】
default:強調の意味を持つ接頭辞de +「失敗」を表すfault (fail+ to なので「~しない」) →「債務不履行」「デフォルト」
default「~しない」→ ユーザーが設定を変更「しない」ときに自動的に適用される「初期設定」


by default:初めから、何もしなくても、戦わずして
 ex) When her only rival withdrew from the mayoral race, she was declared the winner by default. 「彼女は戦わずして勝者と宣言された」

日本 国連安保理の非常任理事国に当選

【 語彙・表現 】
・delegate:代表団、代表者、使節 [délit]
・(be) aware of ~:~を認識している、承知している、分かっている、意識している
・Security Council:安全保障理事会(United Nations「国際連合」で最も強い権限を持つ機関)
 ※否定の接頭辞in- + action「行動」
 ex) Delegates to the United Nations are aware of the criticism of the Security Council for its inaction on the war.

・non-permanent member:非常任理事国
 ※permanent member:常任理事国
 ex) They’ve elected five non-permanent members that might help to change that.

・sit on ~:~の一員(構成員)である、~の座にある
 ex) Ten non-permanent and five permanent members sit on the council.

 ※この文脈ではentity「存在、実在」もよく使われ、UN entityとしても「国連機関」を表せる。
・legally binding :(形)法的拘束力のある
・use of force:(国際紛争について取り上げている文脈では)武力行使
 ex) It’s the only UN body that can make legally binding decisions, such as imposing sanctions and authorizing the use of force.

・veto:(名)拒否権、(特に国連の話題では)安保理常任理事国だけが持つ拒否権 [vítou] ※豆知識参照
 ex) They’ve used their veto power over the war in Ukraine and North Korea’s missile program.

・veto:(動)拒否する、拒否権を行使する ※豆知識参照
 ex) You can veto this resolution. But you cannot veto our voices.

・bring about ~:(句動)~をもたらす、~を引き起こす
reform:改革 [rifɔ́rm]
 ex) Japan’s ambassador says Japanese diplomats hope to use their influence to bring about some reforms.

【 豆知識:"veto" の使い方 】

 ex) I wanted to stay up till midnight, but mom vetoed the idea. 「ママが拒否した」