NHKニュースで学ぶ現代英語 2023年1月勉強分③


・keep A from ~ing:Aが~しないようにする、Aが~するのを防ぐ
 ex) Many parents struggle to keep their babies from crying.

・aged X:X歳の
・face off:対決する
 ex) About 170 babies aged between six months and two years faced off in the so-called Nakizumo contest at a shrine in the city of Fukui.

 ex) Two sumo wrestlers hold one child each in their arms for the event.

・take long:時間がかかる
 ex) Some babies started to cry right away, while others took a bit longer.

・grow up to ~:成長して~になる
 ex) There is a saying in Japan that crying babies grow up to be healthy.

・。preventative:予防の (= preventive)
 ※take stepsを使って、preventative steps were takenとしても同じ意味。
 ex) Preventative measures were taken to reduce the risk of spreading the virus.

・manage to ~:何とか~する
 ex) My son cries loud at home, so he managed to show what he always practices.


イラン抗議デモ1か月 混乱続く

・break out:(戦争や暴動などが)勃発する、突発する、始まる
 ex) One month has passed since protests broke out in Iran over the death of Mahsa Amini.

in custody:拘留(勾留)されて、拘束中に
・morality police:(イランの)風紀警察、道徳警察(イスラム教の解釈に基づいて、市民の日常生活での不適切な行為を取り締まっている組織)
・arrest A for B:A(人)をB(罪、容疑)で逮捕する
 ex) She died in custody after morality police arrested her for not properly wearing a headscarf.

・security forces:治安部隊
 ex) An international human rights organization says over 100 people have been killed in clashes between Iranian security forces and protesters.

・sporadic:散発的な、時々起こる [spərǽdik]
・argue that ~:~だと主張する
 ex) Sporadic clashes between the security forces and demonstrators still continue, as demonstrators argue that Amini died from being beaten by police.

・a number of ~:多くの~、多数の~
・show solidarity with ~:~との連帯、団結を示す [sɑ̀lədǽrəti]
 ex) People in a number of countries have been staging demonstrations to show solidarity with the protests in Iran and raise voices for women’s freedom in the country.

die from ~:~により死亡する」と同じ意味で、
・die of ~:病気などの直接的な要因
・die from ~:けがや過労などの間接的な要因


 ex) Two climate activists have been arrested for throwing tomato soup on Vincent van Gogh’s painting “Sunflowers” at the National Gallery in London.

・work of art:芸術作品
 ex) The work of art was not damaged.

・concerned about ~:~について心配している、関心がある
 ex) Are you more concerned about the protection of a painting, or the protection of our planet and people?

・London’s Metropolitan Police (Service):ロンドン警視庁
 ※日本の首都・東京を管轄する「警視庁」:Metropolitan Police Department
・take placeは「起こる、行われる
 ex) London’s Metropolitan Police said the incident took place on Friday.

・criminal damage:器物損壊
・aggravated:さらに重大な、悪質な、悪化した [ǽgrəvèitəd]
・trespass :不法侵入 [tréspəs]
 ※イギリスでのaggravated trespassは、ただ不法侵入しただけでなく、侵入した先の人を威嚇して活動を妨害することを指す。
 ex) The two women were arrested on suspicion of criminal damage and aggravated trespass.

・fossil fuel:化石燃料(石油、石炭、天然ガスなどの燃料資源)
 ex) The organization campaigns against the use of fossil fuels.

・halt ~:~を停止する、中止する
 ex) The group is demanding the British government halt new oil and gas projects.

 ex) The National Gallery said the picture’s frame sustained minor damage.

 ex) it reported the painting was not harmed, as it is covered with glass.

・(be)on display:展示されて
 ※put A on display:Aを展示する
 ex) The artwork is now back on display.

<豆知識:要求や提案をする文では “should" が省略出来る>

 ex) The British government (should) halt new oil and gas projects.

日本のロケット 打ち上げ失敗

・space agency:宇宙開発機構
・rocket launch:ロケット発射
 ex) Japan’s space agency says its latest rocket launch has failed.

・commercial satellite:商業衛星
 ex) The mission was the first Epsilon rocket to have carried commercial satellites.

・put ~ into orbit:~を軌道に乗せる
 ex) The latest model, Epsilon-6, was supposed to put eight satellites into orbit, two of them commercial.

・aerospace:航空宇宙 [érouspèis]
・The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency:JAXA
 ex) The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, JAXA, developed the Epsilon series as a low-cost launch vehicle for small satellites.

・begin with ~:~から始める、始まる
 ex) JAXA successfully launched all five previous Epsilons, beginning with the first model in 2013.

・six-and-a-half minutes:6分半
 ex) JAXA says the rocket encountered an abnormality about six-and-a-half minutes after liftoff on Wednesday.

 ※ex. Mission Impossibleのセリフ “This message will self-destruct in five seconds."「このメッセージは5秒後に自動的に消滅する」
 ex) It sent a command to the rocket to self-destruct.

・(be) hopeful that ~:~するよう(であるよう)希望に満ちている、期待する、信じる
 ex) JAXA had been hopeful that a successful launch would lead to new business opportunities.

BTSメンバー 兵役で入隊へ

・do military service:兵役に服する
 ex) The agency for K-pop supergroup BTS says all of its members plan to do their military service.

 ※enlist:「入隊する」(名簿リストに自分の名前を書くイメージ) ex. enlist in the armed forces:軍隊に入隊する
・serve in the military:兵役に服する
 ex) The agency says the group’s oldest member, Jin, will withdraw his application to postpone his enlistment and start serving in the military soon.

・for the time being:当面、当分の間、しばらくは
・join up:合流する、加わる、(ここでは)入隊する
 ex) His six bandmates will focus on individual activities for the time being before joining up.

・enter military service:兵役に就く
・the age of ~:年齢を時期として表現する場合は、"~ years old" ではなく “the age of ~" と表す。
・in principle:原則として
 ex) In South Korea, all eligible men are required to enter military service by the age of 28 in principle.

・make a contribution:貢献する
 ex) But those who have made great contributions in fields such as pop culture are allowed to delay joining until age 30.

 ex) Jin is turning 30 in December.

・grant (an) exemption:免除を与える、免除する
 ex) Some South Koreans have argued members of the globally popular band should be granted exemption from military duty.