NHKニュースで学ぶ現代英語 2023年2月勉強分②


・heir:(遺産の)相続人 [er]
 ex) A Japanese insurance giant has been sued by heirs of the former owner of a treasured Vincent van Gogh painting.

・lawsuit:訴訟 [lɔ́sùt]
・in damages:損害賠償金として
 ex) The U.S. lawsuit seeks the return of the artwork and about 750 million dollars in damages.

 ex) Sompo Holdings owns the “Sunflowers” masterpiece through predecessor Yasuda Fire and Marine Insurance.

 ex) The three heirs say the Nazis forced the owner of the artwork to sell it in 1934 as part of a persecution campaign against Jews.

 ※un- + justify「正当化する」+ -able + -ly
・the Van Gogh:そのファン・ゴッホ作品
 ex) They argue that the Japanese firm unjustifiably profited by acquiring the Van Gogh despite knowing its provenance.

・file (a) suit:訴訟を起こす
 ex) The suit was filed in an Illinois federal court.

 ex) Sompo Holdings said it has yet to receive the complaint.

・the insurer:その保険会社
・legitimately:合法的に [lidʒítəmətli]
 ※legitimate「合法の、適法の」+ -ly
・there is no room for ~:~の余地はない
 ex) The insurer also said that it was purchased legitimately through an auction 35 years ago and there is no room for doubt over its ownership.

<豆知識:Vincent van Goghの発音>


・defense ministry:国防省
 ※campaignも同じ。ex. Ukraine campaign:ウクライナ軍事作戦
 ex) Russia’s defense ministry has announced a shake-up of its military leadership to oversee operations in Ukraine.

・chief of staff:参謀長、参謀総長
・appoint A as B:AをBとして任命する
・overall commander:総司令官
 ex) Defense Minister Sergei Shoigu appointed Chief of the General Staff Valery Gerasimov as the overall commander.

・it is unusual for A to ~:Aが~するのは異例だ、まれだ
・take command:(軍事作戦などの)指揮を執る
 ex) It is unusual for a chief of staff to take command on his own.

・be subordinate to ~:~の下につく、~に従属する
 ex) The ministry also said Sergei Surovikin, who’d been the commander since October, and two other senior officers will now be subordinate to Gerasimov.

 ex) It says the new appointments are related to the “broader scope of tasks” and the need for closer coordination between all military branches and services.

・regular forces:正規軍
・private military:民間の軍事会社
 ex) There are reports of discord between Russian regular forces and the Wagner Group private military.

・be thought to be ~:~であると考えられている
・be aimed at ~ing:~することをねらった、目的とした
・chain of command:(組織などの)指揮(命令)系統
 ex) The latest move is thought to be aimed at clarifying the chain of command and better controlling troops.


・triple in value:価値が3倍になる、値打ちが3倍になる
 ex) The world’s top energy body says clean technologies could triple in value by the end of the decade, creating millions of jobs in the process.

・implement:実行する、実施する [ímpləmènt]
 ex) But it says this will only happen if countries fully implement their energy and climate pledges.

・wind:風力発電(= wind power generatio)
・flourish:繁栄する、栄える [flʌ́riʃiŋ]
 ex) It says industries for solar panels, wind, electric vehicles, and their batteries are already flourishing.

・make good on ~:(約束などを)遂行する、履行する
・balloon:膨らむ、急増する、増大する [bəlúːn]
 ex) It predicts that if countries make good on their promises, the market for these and other green technologies will balloon to around 650 billion dollars by 2030.

・resource mining:資源採掘
・too few hands:あまりに少数の国
 ex) The report comes with a warning. It says resource mining, processing, and manufacturing are concentrated in too few hands.

・lithium:リチウム [líθiəm]
・account for ~:~(の割合)を占める
 ex) One example is lithium, essential for EV batteries. Australia, Chile, and China account for more than 90 percent of global production.

<豆知識:"balloon" を使った表現>
when the balloon goes up(イギリス英語)
「風船が上がるとき」→ 「何かが起こるとき、いよいよ戦争や騒ぎなどが始まるとき、いったんことが起こると」

go over like a lead balloon(イギリス英語では go down ・・・)
 ex) Well, your joke went over like a lead balloon …「でも今のあなたのジョーク、墜落したね(ウケなかったね)…」

コメの消費拡大へ 商業施設オープン

・be on the decline:減少傾向にある、下降傾向にある
・look to ~:~の方へ眼を向ける → ~しようとする、~しようと試みる
 ex) Rice consumption has been on the decline in Japan, but one Japanese company is looking to change that.

・is opening:オープンする(直近の予定)
・(be) meant to ~:~する意図がある、~することになっている
 ex) The firm is opening a complex in Tokyo meant to help people see rice as more than just a dinner-table staple.

・be all about ~:~を追及した、~にこだわった
・deal in ~:(人や商店などが)~を取り扱う、販売する
 ex) Yanmar Holdings is operating six shops and restaurants in the same building that are all about rice. One of them deals in varieties of brand-name rice from across Japan.

 ex) The store shows their levels of stickiness, texture, grain size, and more on five-tier scales.

・allow A to ~:Aが~することを可能にする
 ※ex. You’re just the person I was looking for!「あなたはまさに私が探し求めていた人です!」
 ex) It allows people to find just the type they’re looking for.

<豆知識:"variety of"と “a variety of" の違い>
・varieties of ~:~のいろいろな種類
・a variety of ~:さまざまな~、多様な~


・Justice Department:司法省
・special counsel:特別検察官
 ex) The U.S. Justice Department has named a special counsel to investigate President Joe Biden’s handling of classified documents.

batch:ひとまとまり、1回分、ひと束 [bǽtʃ]
 ※batchは、日常的にはパンや焼き菓子の「ひと焼き分」(一度に焼く分量)という意味でよく使う。 ex. Carrie baked a batch of chocolate chip cookies for the party.
 ex) A new batch has been found in the garage of his home in Delaware.

・(be) from the time ~:~のころ(から)のものである
 ex) The records are from the time he was vice president.

・attorney general:法律行政のトップを司る職、アメリカでは「司法長官」、イギリスでは「法務長官」
 ex) Attorney General Merrick Garland has picked Robert Hur as the special counsel to lead the investigation.

・underscore:下線を引く → 強調する、明確に示す、浮き彫りにする
・commitment to ~:~への 責任(をもって取り組むこと)、決意、義務、専念、深い関与
 ex) “This appointment underscores for the public the department’s commitment to both independence and accountability in particularly sensitive matters.”

・midterm elections:アメリカの中間選挙
・become public:公になる
 ex) Speaker Kevin McCarthy says the president knew about the discovery of the documents before November’s midterm elections, but the matter only became public this month.

<豆知識:"know about" と “know of" の違い>
・know about ~:~について知っているが、直接知っているとは限らない。
・know of ~…:人のうわさ話程度に知っている。

 ex) I know of him, but I don’t know him. 「彼のことはうわさ程度には知っている(聞いたことがある)が、個人的には知らない」