NHKニュースで学ぶ現代英語 2023年12月勉強分①

来年のえと “たつ”の置物づくり始まる

【 語彙・表現 】
・(be) hard at work:精力的に仕事をしている、働いている
・figurine:(金属や陶器の)小さい像 [fìgjurín/fìgjərín]
 ※cf. statuette:小像
zodiac:(占星術における)十二宮図 [zóudiæ̀k]
・Chinese zodiac:十二支
 ex) A traditional ceramics maker in southern Japan is hard at work producing figurines for the Year of the Dragon in the Chinese zodiac.

・(be) designated as ~:~として指定されている
 ※e.g. Horyuji in Nara is designated as a World Heritage site.「世界遺産に指定されている」
 ex) Amakusa ceramics are designated as one of Japan’s traditional crafts.

・turn out:(大量に)作り出す、生産する
 ex) One maker in Reihoku, Kumamoto Prefecture, started turning out miniature dragons in early September.

・procure:調達する、入手する [proukjúr]
 ※ビジネス英語でよく使う単語。名詞形はprocurement「調達」 cf. difficulty procuring raw materials:原材料の調達難という意味です。
 ex) Locally procured stones are used in the process.

 ex) The head potter says he found it difficult to come up with the design because dragons are imaginary creatures.

 ex) He said he expects the figurines’ compact size will appeal to many people.

パナマ運河 干ばつで運行制限へ

【 語彙・表現 】
cut back on ~:は~を減らす、(健康に悪い物の摂取量を)減らす、(良くない習慣を)控える
 ※e.g. cut back on staff:人員を削減する、cut back on costs:経費を削減する、cut back on carbs/carbohydrates:炭水化物を控える、、cut back on drinking:お酒を控える
 ex) One of the world’s most important shipping routes is about to see a lot less traffic as the Panama Canal cuts back on the number of vessels allowed to pass through.

equator:赤道 [ikwéitər]
 ex) The drought is due to the effects of the El Niño phenomenon, in which the ocean heats up more than usual near the equator off Peru.

 ※否定・反対を表す接頭辞un- + precedent「先例、前例」+ 名詞に付いて形容詞を作る接尾辞-ed
for ~:~の割には、~としては
 ※e.g. The girl is tall for her age.「年齢の割に背が高い」
 ex) The Panama Canal Authority says water levels in a lake that supplies water to the canal have dropped to unprecedented levels for this time of year.

 ※e.g. The program has a 9:30 a.m. time slot.「放送枠は午前9:30(から)」。
 ex) It says the number of daily slots for ships was cut from an average of 36 to 31 on Wednesday and will be gradually reduced to just 18 in February.

 ex) The operator has also decided to limit the size of vessels allowed to pass through the waterway.

 ex) The 80-kilometer canal in Central America links the Pacific and Atlantic oceans and is a key international shipping route.

【 豆知識:数字の聴き取りのポイント 】



【 語彙・表現 】
・volcanic:火山の、火山性の [vɑlkǽnik]
 ※e.g. erupt in anger:怒りが爆発する、erupt in tears:涙があふれ出す
・the Pacific:the Pacific Oceanの略
islet:小島 [áilət] ※豆知識参照
 ex) A Japanese expert says volcanic eruptions near the Pacific island of Ioto, also known as Iwojima, have created a new islet.

・aerial:空中の、空気の、航空機の [έəriəl]
 ex) Associate Professor Maeno Fukashi of the University of Tokyo’s Earthquake Research Institute conducted an aerial survey of the island on October 30.

・steam eruption:水蒸気噴火、水蒸気爆発
・come into contact with ~:~と接触する、~に触れる
take place:起こる、発生する
 ex) Maeno suspects steam eruptions, caused by magma coming into contact with seawater, are taking place.

・island chain:諸島
 ex) Ioto is part of the Ogasawara island chain.

・plume:(煙や水などの)噴煙、水柱 [plúːm]
・spew out of ~:~から噴き出す [spjúː]
 ex) He observed black plumes containing rocks spewing out of the sea every few minutes about one kilometer off Ioto’s southern coast.

・数値+in size:(数値の)大きさ
 ex) Maeno says the plumes reached over 50 meters high and some of the rocks were several meters in size.

・数値+in diameter:(数値の)直径がある [daiǽmətər]
 ※= 、have a diameter of+数値 e.g. the islet has a diameter of about 100 meters.
 ※cf. in radius:(数値の)半径がある e.g. three inches in radius:半径3インチ
 ex) Maeno says the islet is about 100 meters in diameter.

・volcanic vent:火口、噴火口
・pumice:軽石 [pʌ́mis]
 ex) volcanic vent has been observed, floating bands of pumice have been seen around the islet.

・change in color:色が変わる
 ex) The surrounding seawater has also apparently changed in color.

【 豆知識:単語 “islet" の構成パーツ 】
islet = is + let

ウクライナ 各国の関心低下に危機感

【 語彙・表現 】
・European Commission:EUの執行機関である「ヨーロッパ委員会」
 ex) Zelenskyy spoke at a news conference with European Commission President Ursula von der Leyen after talks in Kyiv.

・there have been times when ~:~のような時期があった
・already:これまでにも、すでに(国際社会がウクライナにほとんど関心や注目を示さなかった(almost no focus on Ukraine)時期があったということ)
 ex) He said there have already been times when “there was almost no focus on Ukraine,” and he added he is “absolutely sure we will overcome this challenge.”

ahead of ~:(時間的にまたは空間的に)~の前に
 ex) Zelenskyy greeted von der Leyen at a railway station in Kyiv ahead of their meeting.

・offer a welcome to ~:~を迎える、歓迎する
 ※cf. mere gesture:(気持ちを伴わない)単なるジェスチャー
 ex) A source told NHK he did not offer such a welcome to U.S. President Joe Biden and that the unprecedented gesture reflects his serious concerns about declining interest in Ukraine.


【 語彙・表現 】
・cash-strapped ~:現金が十分にない~、資金繰りに苦労している~、金銭的に困窮している~
 ※cf. be strapped (for cash):金に困っている、持ち合わせが足りない、一時的にお金が不足している
 ex) The people at Japan’s cash-strapped National Museum of Nature and Science say a crowdfunding campaign has drawn an overwhelming response from the public.

raise:(寄付金や資金などを)集める、募る ※豆知識参照
・数字 + times:~倍
 ※「回数」を表すtime(例えば one time「1回」、five times「5回」など)もある。
 ex) They say they raised over 900 million yen, or about 6 million dollars. That’s more than nine times their goal.

contribute to ~:~に貢献する、寄与する、寄付する
・money-raising ~:資金調達の~
 ※ = fundraising
 ex) Museum officials say around 56,000 people contributed to the money-raising drive that ran from early August until Sunday.

・fall on:(特定の日時に)当たる、(責任や災難などが)降りかかる、(問題や困難などに)出くわす、遭遇する
 ※多くの場合「資金難」や「経済的苦境」を指す。 e.g. fall on hard/bad/tough times:つらい時期を経験する、不遇な目に遭う
spiking ~:急騰する~、高騰する~、急に上昇する~
 ※cf. spike:急上昇する = (価格などが急激に上がると言う場合)soaring, skyrocketing
・utility costs:(電気・ガス・水道などの)光熱(水)費
 ex) The institution fell on hard times during the coronavirus pandemic and is now struggling with spiking utility costs.

specimen:見本、標本、検体 [spésəmin]
 ex) The museum houses 5 million items that include animal, plant, and fossil specimens.

・a third of ~:~の3分の1
 ※cf. two thirds of ~:~の3分の2
 ex) Officials say they will use about a third of the money to buy gifts for contributors and cover campaign costs.

【 豆知識:"raise" の基本の意味と派生する使い方 】


 ex) (教室で先生が生徒たちに)Raise your hand (if you know the answer).「(答えが分かる人は)手を挙げてください」




・国旗を「掲揚する」 →愛国心を発揚する
・沈没船を海底から「引き揚げる」 →荷物などを回収する
・声を「上げる、荒げる」 →いらいらを相手に伝える
・商品の価格を「上げる」(値上げする) →収益を増やす