NHKニュースで学ぶ現代英語 2023年11月勉強分③


【 語彙・表現 】
・flock to ~:~に群がる、押し寄せる
 ex) High school students preparing for the next stage in their lives have flocked to a shrine in southwestern Japan, where they prayed that they will pass their entrance exams.

・enshrine:(神聖なものとして)まつる [enʃráin]
・aristocrat:貴族 [ərístəkræ̀t]
 ex) Dazaifu Tenmangu in Fukuoka Prefecture enshrines an aristocrat named Sugawara no Michizane.

・marks the date (that) ~:~という日を記念する
 ex) October 18 marks the date he was promoted to the highest rank for a scholar over a millennium ago.

 ex) Hundreds of students and their families joined the ceremony, hoping it would bring them scholastic success.

・get into ~:~に入る、(ここでは)入学する、合格する、入学選抜に通る
・first choice:第一志望、第一希望(の進学先)
 ex) “I’m praying I get into my first choice.

 ※動詞のworshipは「祈る」の他に宗教信仰とは違うニュアンスで「信奉する、あがめる」として使うこともある。e.g. worship capitalism:資本主義を信奉する
 ex) The worshipers passed through a gate decorated with a dragon and carp based on an ancient Chinese legend about a gateway to success.

【 豆知識:"high school" に該当する学年 】
アメリカ英語のhigh schoolは9年生(日本で言う中学3年生)から12年生(高校3年生)、もしくは10年生(高校1年生)から12年生にあたり、senior high schoolと表現することもある。
イギリス英語では中等教育(中学・高校)をまとめてsecondary schoolと言うが、学校名には high schoolという言葉が含まれることがある。

イスラエル軍 “戦争の第2段階”に

【 語彙・表現 】
・ground operation:地上の軍事作戦・行動、地上戦
 ※cf. ground offensive:地上攻撃、地上戦、ground invasion:地上侵攻
・strip:細長い一片、細長い土地 [stríp]
・the Gaza Strip:中東パレスチナのガザ地区
 ex) Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu says the ongoing ground operation in the Gaza Strip is “the second stage of the war” against the Islamic group Hamas.

・war of independence:独立戦争
 ex) “The battle within the Gaza Strip will be difficult and long; this is our second war of independence.”

 ex) It suggests Israeli military vehicles may have been deployed for the operation.

 ※cf. punishing schedule:過酷なスケジュール
・airstrike/air strike:空爆、空襲
 ex) Israeli forces have also been unleashing punishing airstrikes, mainly on northern parts of the Palestinian territory.

 ex) The prime minister also said the troops are trying to ensure Israel’s “existence in its land.”

【 豆知識:文内のセミコロンの意味 】
“We are only at the beginning. The battle within the Gaza Strip will be difficult and long; this is our second war of independence.”
ここでのセミコロン(;)は「そして」(, and)などの意味。

徳島 木頭ゆずの収穫始まる

【 語彙・表現 】
・gear up for ~:~に備えて準備する
 ex) Citrus farmers in western Japan are gearing up for their busy season.

・gain popularity:人気を得る、好評を博する
 ex) They’ve started harvesting Tokushima Prefecture’s famed yuzu fruit, which has been gaining popularity overseas.

・mountainous:山の多い、産地の [máuntənəs]
 ex) One company grows the crop in mountainous areas with a wide temperature range and lots of rainfall, which provide ideal conditions.

・precipitation:降水量 [prisìpətéiʃən]
 ex) Precipitation has been lower than usual this year, meaning smaller yuzu.

・robust:風味豊かな、芳じゅんな、濃厚な、こくのある [roubʌ́st]
 ex) “The best thing about our yuzu is its strong and sour flavor. We hope consumers will enjoy its robust taste.”

・gain traction:人気を得る、支持を得る、勢いを増す
・with ~:~した状態で、~がしていて、~していることからも分かるように
・international order:海外からの注文
・order for ~:~の注文
・triple:(動)3倍になる [trípl]
 ※cf. double:2倍になる、quadruple:4倍になる [kwɑdrúpəl]
 ex) The fruit appears to be gaining traction overseas, with international orders for the company’s yuzu tripling this year compared to last year.

【 豆知識:日本の野菜や果物の英語名 】
・ゆず:yuzu fruit, yuzu citrus
・白菜:Chinese cabbage イギリス英語ではChinese leaves
・ネギ、長ネギ:green onion, scallion [skǽljən] イギリス英語ではspring onion
 ※leek「リーキ (西洋ニラネギ)」とは別物
・日本の梨:Japanese pear, nashi pear。

米下院 議長不在22日ぶりに解消

【 語彙・表現 】

・(be) caught in ~:~(ある状態)に陥る、~(という状況)にとらわれる
 ※e.g. be caught in disputes:争いに巻き込まれる、be caught in a traffic jam:交通渋滞につかまる
・paralysis:まひ [pərǽləsis]
・state of paralysis:まひ状態
 ex) Lawmakers in the U.S. House of Representatives have been caught in a state of paralysis trying to decide who should be their leader.

 ex) He’s among those who refused to accept former President Donald Trump’s loss in the 2020 election.

・ban on ~:~の禁止
 ex) He’s called for national bans on abortion and on educating children about LGBTQ topics.

 ※ = far-right
・manage to ~:どうにか~する、頑張って~する
・force A from ~:Aを~から追放する、Aを~から押しのける
 ※cf. force A out of ~:Aを~から押し出す、force A into ~:Aを~に押し込む
 ex) Earlier this month, hard-right members managed to force Kevin McCarthy from the speaker’s chair.

・win ~:(好ましいものやあると嬉しいものを)獲得する、得る
 ※e.g. win support:支持を獲得する、win fans:ファンを増やす、win votes:得票する
 ex) Republicans nominated three other candidates, but none of them could win enough support.

legislation on ~:~の法制化、法律、法案
・government shutdown:政府機能の停止、政府閉鎖
 ex) Now lawmakers can finally discuss legislation on funding needed within weeks to avoid a government shutdown.

・take up:(問題などを)取り上げる、検討する、対処する
 ex) They’ll also take up aid to Israel and to Ukraine, something Johnson has opposed.


【 語彙・表現 】
・landmark:目印、道しるべ → 物事の転換点となるような画期的な(出来事)
・reproductive function:生殖機能
 ex) In a landmark ruling, Japan’s Supreme Court has decided that requiring people to undergo surgery to remove their reproductive functions when they wish to officially change gender is unconstitutional.

 ex) A person registered as a man but living as a woman asked a family court to allow a gender change without surgery, claiming that enforcing it would violate their human rights and the Constitution.

 ex) Both the family court and then a high court dismissed the case.

・Grand Bench of the Supreme Court:最高裁判所大法廷
 ※cf. Petty Bench of the Supreme Court:最高裁判所小法廷(裁判官5人による審理が行われる)
 ex) Bench of the Supreme Court said on Wednesday that the requirement does indeed violate the Constitution.

 ex) The Supreme Court has ordered the high court to retry the case.

・can only do if ~:〜の場合に限ってできる、可能である
・certain conditions are met:一定の条件を満たす
・be born with:生まれながらに持っている
 ex) Under current Japanese law, a person’s gender on official documents can only be changed if certain conditions are met, such as the individual no longer having the reproductive functions he or she was born with.

 ex) That effectively requires the person to undergo surgery.

【 豆知識:性同一性障害の表現 】
gender identity disorder:性同一性障害
近年は、障害イコール病気という誤ったイメージを避けるため、特に海外ではgender dysphoria「性別違和」[disfɔ́ːriə] やgender incongruence「性別不合」[inkɑ́ŋgruəns]といった言葉も使われる。

【 豆知識:性別を特定しない代名詞 “they" 】

 ex) Everybody thinks they are right. 「誰でも自分が正しいと思うものだ」
 ex) A person registered as a man but living as a woman asked a family court to allow a gender change without surgery, claiming that enforcing it would violate their human rights and the Constitution.


 ex) (She is my friend.という意味で)They are my friend.