NHKニュースで学ぶ現代英語 2024年2月勉強分①


【 語彙・表現 】
 ex) Japanese researchers say the hormone oxytocin may help promote hair growth.

 ex) Oxytocin is often released by women before childbirth and during breastfeeding.

along with ~:~と一緒に、~とともに
 ex) The research was done by Kageyama Tatsuto at the Kanagawa Institute of Industrial Science and Technology, along with a team at Yokohama National University.

 ※cf. eyewitness account:目撃証言
 ex) The idea for the experiment came from accounts of more body hair growing during pregnancy.

・potential link with ~:~と関連性があるかもしれないこと
 ex) The team decided to examine a potential link with oxytocin.

・hair follicleは:毛包(毛根の根元にある組織)[fɑ́likəl]
 ex) They created hair follicles from human cells and applied the hormone.

 ex) The results also showed adding more oxytocin to the follicles activated certain genes linked to hair growth.

【 豆知識:定冠詞"the"で表すニュアンス① 】
 ex) (ニュース文)Japanese researchers say the hormone oxytocin may help promote hair growth.


【 語彙・表現 】
・holiday travel rush:休暇の旅行による混雑
 ※cf. homecoming rush:帰省ラッシュ
 ex) Now the holiday travel rush is worsening labor shortages around the country, especially in the tourism industry.

 ex) But one inn has come up with a unique system to ease the effects of the problem.

 ex) A rickshaw tour business in Asakusa lost nearly half of its drivers during the pandemic.

・have no (other) choice but to ~:~する以外に選択肢がない、~するしかない
・turn ~ away:~を断る、拒否する
 ex) It has no choice but to turn some customers away.

・turn to ~:~に頼る、~に救いを求める
 ex) But this inn in Shizuoka Prefecture is turning to an unlikely source of manpower – the guests themselves.

【 豆知識:定冠詞"the"で表すニュアンス② 】

ニュース文の"around the country"のthe countryは「(この文脈から常識的に分かる)特定の国」=「日本」
“the tourism industry"も「(日本の)観光業界」
それまでの文脈から判断して理解できるであろうことを指す場合は、the previously/already recognized「特定のすでに認識されている~、この~」のような表現が略されて、単にtheとなっている。

他にも「この後に続くフレーズは特定のことである」という印(あえて補ってみるなら、the specific「特定の~」のような表現)にもなる。

ニュース文の"the effects of the problem"では、effects of the problem「その問題の(複数の)影響」という部分は特定のことなのでtheが付いている。


米大統領選候補者選び トランプ氏好発進

【 語彙・表現 】
・caucus:党員集会 [kɔ́kəs]
 ex) Former U.S. President Donald Trump has won the Iowa caucuses.

 ※primary electionが略されたもの。
 ex) In the U.S. presidential election, the Democratic and Republican parties hold caucuses and primaries in states across the country to select their presidential candidates for the November vote.

・A is said to ~:Aは~すると言われている
 ex) The opening contest in the Midwestern state of Iowa is said to have huge implications for the overall race.

ambassador to ~:~に派遣されている大使
 ex) Former U.S. ambassador to the United Nations Nikki Haley and Florida Governor Ron DeSantis are among the other Republican candidates.

indictment:起訴 [indáitmənt]
 ex) Trump is facing indictments in four separate cases as he tries to reclaim the White House.

・strip A of B:AからBを奪い取る、AからBを剥奪する
 ex) There have also been legal attempts in some states to strip him of his eligibility to join the primaries.

【 豆知識:選挙でよく使われる語彙 】
・primary (election):予備選挙

・approval rating/ approval rate:支持率
・support rate:支持率

・political rally:政治集会

 ※選挙関連のニュースでは「陣営」。e.g. the Biden camp:バイデン陣営




【 語彙・表現 】
・in the hope(s) of ~:~を願って、~を期待して
 ex) Hundreds of thousands of worshippers joined to try to get close to the statue in the hopes of making their wishes come true.

・Black Nazarene:黒いキリスト像(フィリピンの伝統行事で用いられる像) ※豆知識参照
 ex) A carriage holding the wooden statue called the Black Nazarene was paraded Tuesday through the capital.

・be believed to ~:~と信じられている
 ex) The religious icon is believed to have miraculous healing powers in Asia’s largest Catholic country.

scramble to ~:先を争って~する、慌てて~する
 ex) Devotees scrambled to get close.

 ※cf. heatstroke:熱中症
 ex) I pray that the life of my father will be prolonged, because he suffered a stroke.

 ex) The excitement among the worshippers was especially high, as the procession had been canceled due to the coronavirus pandemic.

【 豆知識:「ブラック・ナザレ」の名前の由来 】
Black Nazarene:ブラック・ナザレ

特にtheを付けてthe Nazareneとするとイエス・キリスト自身を指す。


大谷選手の契約金後払い 加州が問題視

【 語彙・表現 】
・the Los Angeles Dodgers:野球チームなどのスポーツチームの英語名称には、the+複数形で表すという一般的なルールがある。
 ex) Japanese baseball star Ohtani Shohei’s new contract with the Los Angeles Dodgers is one of the biggest in sporting history.

・raise a red flag:警告を出す、待ったをかける(慣用表現)
 ※cf. raise the white flag:降参する、降伏する
・skip out on:(本来ならやるべき仕事や約束を)サボる、避ける、~に参加しない、(自分を必要としている人を)置き去りにする
 ※e.g. He skipped out on his wife and kids.「彼は妻と子どもを捨てて逃げた」、skip out on the bill「(レストランなどで)支払いをせずに立ち去る」
 ex) A state official in California has raised a red flag over the deal, which could see him skip out on millions of dollars in taxes.

 ex) The two-way sensation is set to earn a record-breaking 700 million dollars over 10 years.

 ex) 680 million of that will be deferred until after the contract expires.

 ex) California State Controller Malia Cohen says the deal could be unfair.

・top earner:高額所得者
 ex) Cohen criticizes the current system for allowing top earners unlimited deferrals.

call on A to ~:Aに~するよう呼びかける、求める
・Congress:アメリカ連邦議会 ※豆知識参照
rectify:(誤りを)正す、是正する [réktəfài]
 ex) She’s calling on Congress to rectify the imbalance immediately.

【 豆知識:各国の「議会」の語彙 】
the Diet:日本の「国会」

【 豆知識:仮定を表す倒置 】
“She points out Ohtani could potentially escape payment of state income taxes, should he return to Japan."
should he return to Japan = if he should return to Japan「もし日本に戻ることになったら」で、文の最後が倒置形になっている。

If Ohtani should return to Japan, he could potentially escape payment of state income taxes."