NHKニュースで学ぶ現代英語 2023年10月勉強分①


【 語彙・表現 】
・intestinal bacteria:腸内細菌
・diabetes:糖尿病 [dàiəbíːtiːz]
 ※複数形のように見えるが、diabetesで「糖尿病」。「糖尿病患者」ならdiabetic [dàiəbétik]
 ex) Japanese researchers say they’ve found a type of intestinal bacteria that may help prevent the development of diabetes.

・blood sugar level:血糖値
 ex) They say it may help activate insulin, the hormone that helps reduce blood sugar levels.

 ex) They published their findings in the science magazine Nature last week.

・gut bacteria:腸内細菌
・fecal:便の、糞(ふん) [fíːkəl]
 ※省略形のcarbという単語もよく使われる。low-carb diet:低炭水化物の食事
 ex) They examined the participants’ gut bacteria types, fecal carbohydrates, and insulin conditions.

・obese:太りすぎの、肥満の [oubíːs]
 ex) The team then gave the bacteria to obese mice.

・glucose:ブドウ糖、グルコース [glúːkous]
 ex) It says their blood glucose levels dropped 20 percent compared to mice that were not given the bacteria.

米タイム誌 “次世代の100人”

【 語彙・表現 】
・Japan’s Ground Self-Defense Force:日本の陸上自衛隊
 ※(Japan) Air Self-Defense Force「航空自衛隊」と(Japan) Maritime Self-Defense Force「海上自衛隊」とあわせて、「自衛隊」全体を表すときにはSelf-Defense Forcesと複数形にする。
・rising star:期待の星、将来性のある人物、新星、成長株、人気が急上昇している人
 ex) A former female member of Japan’s Ground Self-Defense Force has been chosen by U.S. magazine Time for its list of 100 rising stars.

go public about ~:~について(の秘密などを)公表する、公にする
・sexual abuse:性的虐待
 ex) Gonoi Rina went public about suffering sexual abuse by multiple male colleagues in her unit.

・advocate:擁護者、提唱者、権利や尊厳を守るために活動する人 [ǽdvət]
 ex) Time selected her for the “advocates” category.

・launch an investigation into ~:~について調査・捜査を開始する
・prompt A to ~:~するようにA(人)を促す、駆り立てる
・come forward:名乗り出る、前に進み出る、(協力・情報提供を)申し出る
 ex) The magazine says Gonoi’s move pushed officials to launch a larger investigation into harassment within the forces and prompted other women to come forward.

・kick the door open:扉を蹴って開ける ※豆知識参照
 ex) It says her courage has “kicked the door open for all survivors.”

・win recognitionは「評価を得る、評価される、認められる」
 ex) Gonoi said in a statement that she is grateful that her actions have won recognition and that will empower her to carry on.

【 豆知識:"door" を使った表現 】
kick the door open:扉を蹴って開ける
open the door「門戸を開く、機会を与える」より「勢いよく(扉を)開ける」というニュアンスがある。
 ex) It says her courage has “kicked the door open for all survivors.” 

behind closed doors:秘密裏に、非公開で、仲間内で
 ex) The deal was negotiated behind closed doors.  

shut the door:(話し合いや改善などの)余地をなくす、不可能にする
 ex) The country shut the door on peaceful solutions.  「平和的解決に門戸を閉ざした」

leave the door open:事の可能性や検討の余地を残しておく
 ex) Let’s leave the door open for further discussion.  「さらなる議論のために検討の余地は残しておこう。」

【 明日香先生とTomさんのディスカッションより 】
“Today’s news story put the spotlight on women in Japan."
 put the spotlight on ~:~に脚光を浴びせる

Could you tell us a bit more about women’s situation in the U.S.?"
 Could you tell us a bit more about ~?:~について私たちにもう少し教えてくれますか?

“Women do have a growing presence in high-level politics: the current vice-president is female, and many female candidates have run in primaries."

“Having more diversity in class seems to make students feel intimidated at first"


【 語彙・表現 】
・see A ~:Aが~するのを見る、目の当たりにする
・come under ~:(監督・管理・管轄・支配などの)の下に入る
 ex) U.S. President Joe Biden has seen his son come under increasing legal scrutiny.

・indict:起訴する、告発する [indáit]
・on ~ charges / on charges (the charge) of ~:~の罪で、~の容疑で(起訴される、逮捕される)
 ex) Now federal prosecutors have indicted Hunter Biden on gun charges.

・deceive A into ~ing:Aをだまして~させる
 ex) Prosecutors say, five years ago, Biden deceived a gun dealer into selling him a firearm.

・indictment:起訴 [indáitmənt]
first ever:これまでで(史上)初めて
sitting ~:現職の~
 ex) The indictment is believed to be the first ever for the child of a sitting president.

weeks after ~:~の数週間後に
・plea deal:司法取引
 ※ = plea bargain
・criminal trial:刑事裁判
 ex) The charges come weeks after the collapse of a plea deal that would have averted a criminal trial.

・throw out :(訴えや申し出、計画などを)却下する
 ex) Biden’s lawyer says he’s still protected by part of that deal and the indictment should be thrown out.

push for ~:~を強く求める
・investigation into ~:~に対する調査
 ex) Former President Donald Trump and his Republican allies have been pushing for an investigation into the Biden business dealings.

クローン羊“ドリー” 生みの親が死去

【 語彙・表現 】
 ※一般的な意味では、「(そっくりそのまま)コピーする e.g. clone a hard drive:ハードドライブを完全にコピーする、複製する
 ex) The British scientist who created the world’s first cloned sheep has died. Ian Wilmut was 79.

・raise hope:希望を高める、(人に)希望を抱かせる
 ※raiseは感情を表す名詞との相性が良い。e.g. raise fears:不安をもたらす、raise concern:懸念を起こす
・incurable:否定の接頭辞in- + curable「治療可能な → 治療不可能な
 ex) The cloning raised hope that the technique could be applied to the treatment of incurable diseases.

・spark ~:~に火をつける、(騒動や議論などを)引き起こす
 ※ = ignite
 ex) It also sparked ethical controversy over the possibility of human cloning.

・a way to ~:~する方法、やり方
 ※e.g. There are many ways to say the same thing.「同じことを言うにもたくさんの言い方がある。」
 ex) Wilmut continued to study ways to treat diseases using cloning technology.

・research into ~:~の研究
・pluripotent:(細胞などが)多能性のある [plùripóutənt]
・stem cell:幹細胞
・induced pluripotent stem cells:人工多能性幹細胞(iPS細胞)
 ex) In 2007, he gave up after finding that research into induced pluripotent stem cells, or iPS cells, has greater potential and is more socially acceptable.

・(be) diagnosed with ~:~(病名)と診断される [dàiəgnóus]
 ex) It said he had been diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease five years ago.

【 豆知識:ニュースや報道では受動態もよく使われる 】
Wilmut’s death was announced on Monday by the University of Edinburgh, where he once taught."

英文の一般的なライティングではactive voice「能動態」で書くのが好ましいとされることもあるが、ニュースや報道ではpassive voice「受動態」もよく使われる。
何に焦点を置くかにもよる(この文では「Wilmut’s death」)。

【 豆知識:WH語を重ねる表現 】
“The university didn’t disclose when or how he died."

・when and where:いつどこで
・if and when:もし~するとき(確実ではないというニュアンス)
 ex) Please tell me if and when he comes.「もし彼が来たら教えてください」

【 豆知識:多くの病名は発見した研究者の名前 + " 's " 】

・Parkinson’s disease:パーキンソン病
・Alzheimer’s disease:アルツハイマー病
・Hansen’s disease:ハンセン病

“イグ・ノーベル賞” ことしも日本人が受賞


【 語彙・表現 】
associate professor:准教授
 ex) Meiji University Professor Miyashita Homei and University of Tokyo Associate Professor Nakamura Hiromi were honored in an online ceremony on Thursday.

 ex) This is the 17th straight year that Japanese researchers have won.

・study into ~:~についての研究
 ex) Miyashita and Nakamura began their study into the technology 10 years ago.

・lead to ~:~につながる、~に至る
 ex) Their experiments led to the development of tableware that creates the illusion of saltier food with electrical stimulus.

 ex) The scientists are hoping their research can help lower unhealthy amounts of salt in food.

・quirky:風変わりな、奇抜な、とっぴな [kwə́ːrki]
 ex) The parody award was started in an American science journal in 1991 to celebrate quirky research that “makes people laugh, then think.”

【 豆知識:"electric" と “electrical" の違い 】
“Two Japanese scientists have been awarded the Ig Nobel Prize, a parody of the Nobel Prize, for their study on how electrical chopsticks can change the taste of food.


・electric rice cooker「電気炊飯器」、
・electric guitar「エレキギター」、
・electric toothbrush「電動歯ブラシ」などです。


electrical appliances:電気製品、家電製品
electrical equipment:電気設備

electrical rice cooker、electrical guitar、electrical toothbrushという言い方はあまりしない。


※参考:「"electr・・・"(「電気ナントカ」) の違いで混乱しているので混乱しているので自分で整理」