NHKニュースで学ぶ現代英語 2024年3月勉強分②


【 語彙・表現 】
・open up:(可能性や機会を)開く、切り開く、開放する、(選択肢を)広げる
 ex) A baseball historian is hoping to increase awareness of how Japanese Americans interned in the U.S. during World War II opened up a “bridge across the Pacific.”

・~ of Japanese origin:日系の~
・internment camp:(戦時中や政治犯などの)強制収容所
 ※ = concentration camp
 ex) Kerry Yo Nakagawa has documented how detainees of Japanese origin played baseball at their internment camps.

・executive order:(ここでは)アメリカの大統領(による)行政命令、大統領令
 ex) He gave a lecture in California nine days before the 82nd anniversary of the issuance of an executive order by then-U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt.

 ex) The directive led to the internment of about 120,000 individuals deemed “alien enemies,” including people of Japanese ancestry.

 ex) He explained that there was a time when people of Japanese descent were not allowed to play for Major League teams.

・barbed wire:有刺鉄線
 ex) “What if Ohtani-san, Murakami-san, Nomo, Ichiro, Yamamoto-san, now with the Dodgers, could only play baseball behind barbed wire and only for their community?”

ロシア ナワリヌイ氏死亡

【 語彙・表現 】
 ex) The death of jailed Russian opposition leader Alexei Navalny has many in the country demanding to know the circumstances.

 ※もとになっている句動詞speak out (about ~):(~について)思うところを言う、臆することなく意見を述べる
 ex) Navalny was an outspoken critic of President Vladimir Putin.

・prison colony:流刑地
 ※= penal colony
・serve a sentence:服役する、刑に服す、刑期を務める
 ※e.g. serve a sentence of ~ years:~年間服役する
 ex) Russian authorities announced on Friday that Navalny had died in the prison colony where he was serving his sentence, but gave no details about the cause of death.

break out:(戦争や疫病など好ましくないものや不快なものが)突然始まって広がる
 ※e.g. A riot broke out.「暴動が発生した」
 ex) The independent Russian newspaper Novaya Gazeta Europe quotes another inmate as saying a “mysterious commotionbroke out on Thursday evening, then security was tightened, and vehicles could be heard driving into the compound.

【 豆知識:sentenceの語源 】

→ 神様や権威を持つ人が下した「見解、判断、意見、見解」
→ 文字や言葉によって表現したものが、「文」


H3ロケット2号機 打ち上げ成功

【 語彙・表現 】
・enter orbit:軌道に入る、乗る
 ex) Japan’s space agency JAXA has confirmed that its new H3 rocket has successfully entered orbit.

・lift off:離昇する、打ち上がる
 ※ゆっくりと持ち上がるように地面から離れる様子を表し、ロケットの打ち上げを伝える場面で頻繁に使われる。「噴射」に注目したblast off「飛び立つ、発射する」という表現もある。e.g. A short-range missile blasted off from a mobile launcher.「短距離ミサイルが移動式発射台から飛び立った」
 ex) The flagship rocket lifted off from the Tanegashima Space Center in the southwestern prefecture of Kagoshima on Saturday morning.

 ex) This is the second launch of an H3 rocket. The first attempt last March was aborted after its second-stage engine failed to ignite.

 ex) He said he truly appreciates the efforts of everyone involved.

・only now:ようやく今
 ex) Okada said the H3 rocket has only been launched twice and that the real challenge is only now about to begin.

【 豆知識:couldn’t be+比較級「このうえなく、最高に」の例 】
He couldn’t be happier or more relieved.「こんなにうれしいことはなく、こんなにほっとしていることもない」
It couldn’t be better.「これは最高だね」
I couldn’t agree more.「大賛成!」


【 語彙・表現 】
trading house:商社
・perishable:腐りやすい、傷みやすい、日持ちのしない [périʃəbəl]
・perishable food:傷みやすい食品、日持ちのしない食品、生鮮食品
 ※ = perishables
 ex) Major Japanese trading house Sumitomo is set to introduce new container technology that keeps perishable food fresh for a longer time.

・shipping firm:海運会社、輸送会社、船会社
 ※「う回する」はイギリス英語では「take a diversion」、アメリカ英語では「make/take a detour」
 ex) The innovation is timely, as many shipping firms are taking lengthy diversions to avoid the Red Sea due to attacks on vessels.

・electric field:電場
 ex) The technology creates an electric field inside temperature-controlled containers.

molecule:分子 [mɑ́ləkjùːl]
・cause A to ~:A(人や物)に~させる
・slow down ~:~を遅らせる、遅くする
decay:腐る [diki]
 ex) That causes water molecules in the food to move and slows down the process of decay.

 ex) Sumitomo says transportation times can be doubled or even tripled for many foodstuffs.

・commercial application:商業的応用、商用化
 ex) Sumitomo plans to tie up with Hong Kong-based shipping firm Orient Overseas Container Line for the world’s first commercial application of the technology.

 ex) The Japanese company also says the service can help curb rising shipping costs.

【 豆知識:病気を表す語彙 】
・虫歯(虫歯になった歯):decayed tooth / cavity
・中耳炎:middle ear infection / tympanitis(専門用語)
・結膜炎:pink eye / conjunctivitis

中国への直接投資 30年ぶりの低水準

【 語彙・表現 】
 ex) In more bad news for China’s economy, foreign direct investment in the country tumbled to a 30-year low in 2023.

・State Administration of Foreign Exchange:中国の「国家外貨管理局」
 ex) China’s State Administration of Foreign Exchange says foreign direct investment fell to 33 billion dollars, down 82 percent from the previous year.

・for the second straight year:2年連続で
 ex) The number dropped for the second straight year to the lowest since 1993.

 ※e.g. guilt-ridden:悪感に満ちた
・advanced semiconductors:先端半導体
 ex) The clouds over China’s economy include debt-ridden real estate developers and the trade conflicts with the U.S., including over advanced semiconductors.

espionage:スパイ行為 [éspiənɑ̀ʒ]
・revised anti-espionage law:改正反スパイ法
 ex) Enforcement of China’s revised anti-espionage law and its possible effect on businesses also appear to have discouraged investment from overseas.