NHKニュースで学ぶ現代英語 2023年5月勉強分①

福島の帰還困難区域 住民が居住再開

【 語彙・表現 】
・radiation:放射線 [rèidiéiʃən]
 ex) Residents of the Noyuki district had to leave their homes due to high levels of radiation after the area was declared a “difficult-to-return” zone in 2011.

 ex) About 6 percent of the district was prioritized as a special zone for decontamination work and infrastructure projects.

・work on ~:~に取り組む
 ex) We’d like to work on reconstruction while sincerely standing by the residents of the Noyuki district.

EU首脳会議 ウクライナを“加盟候補国”に

【 語彙・表現 】
・(be) reduced to ~:(好ましくない状態などに)無理に変えられる、降格させられる、(~する)はめになる ※豆知識参照
 ex) European Union leaders have seen Ukrainian neighborhoods reduced to rubble.

・for oneself:(ここでは)自分で直接話を聞く
 ex) Some have visited to walk through the ruins and hear the stories for themselves.

・grant A B:AにBを与える、許可する
・covet:待ち望む、欲しがる、切望する [kʌ́vət]
・a coveted status:(ここでは)EU加盟候補国
 ex) They’ve granted Ukraine a coveted status.

 ex) EU leaders gathered to consider bids to join their bloc.

・along with ~:~とともに、~と一緒に
 ex) Ukraine a candidate for membership along with neighboring Moldova.

 ex) The countries all have to do homework before moving to the next stage of the accession process.

・be convinced:確信している
 ex) I am convinced that they will all move as swiftly as possible and work as hard as possible to implement the necessary reforms.

・raise morale:士気を高める
・desperate for ~:~を切望している、必死に求めている
 ex) Still, the announcement has raised morale among Ukrainians desperate for hope.

【 豆知識:"be reduced to ~" 「~と化す」の例 】

・be reduced to rubble:(破壊されて)がれきと化す
・be reduced to ashes:(焼けて)灰と化す
・be reduced to poverty:困窮する、貧困に陥る

プーチン大統領 “サハリン2をロシア企業に”

【 語彙・表現 】
・take control of ~:~の支配権、経営権などを握る
・far east:はるか東 → 極東(ここではサハリン)
 ex) Russia’s government is moving to take full control of a major oil and gas project in the country’s far east.

 ex) The Sakhalin-2 development is a significant supplier of natural gas to Japan, and two Japanese companies are involved.

・decree:法令、政令、布告、(ここではプーチン大統領が署名した)大統領令 [dikríː]
 ex) Russian President Putin signed a decree on Thursday to replace the Sakhalin Energy Investment Company.

 ex) Foreign partners hold about half of the venture, and state-run Gazprom holds the rest.

・national interest:国益
・economic security:経済安全保障
 ex) The decree cites a threat to Russia’s national interests and economic security.

・pull out:撤退する
・over ~:~をめぐって、~に関連して、~の理由で
 ex) Oil giant Shell is a major shareholder but announced earlier it would pull out over the invasion of Ukraine.

・trading house (company):商社
・& Co.:companyの省略形
 ※多くの場合「アンド カンパニー」と読むが、「アンド コウ」と読むこともある。
 ex) Japanese trading house Mitsui & Co. owns 12.5 percent, while Mitsubishi Corporation has 10 percent.

・look into ~:~(の内容・原因などを)調べる、調査する
 ex) The Japanese companies say they’re looking into the situation.

【 豆知識:保有株比率の表現 】
 ex) Japanese trading house Mitsui & Co. owns 12.5 percent, while Mitsubishi Corporation has 10 percent.

↑株主が会社の株式をどのくらい所有しているかを表すときは、12.5 percent stake in the companyとわざわざ言わなくても、このように「ownやhave + 数字 percent」のみで表せる。


【 語彙・表現 】
・clinical trial:臨床試験、治験
・a type of ~:(複数ある中の)1つの種類
 ex) Japanese researchers say clinical trials show a drug used to treat Parkinson’s may help slow the progress of a type of Alzheimer’s disease.

 ex) Using iPS cells developed from cells of patients, the team had found that the drug Bromocriptine reduced accumulation of a protein in the brain believed to cause Alzheimer’s.

 ex) They said that about five months after the patients started taking the drug, only one in five showed cognitive decline.

・by contrast:(前述の内容に対して)対照的に、それに反して
 ※= in contrast:対照的に、その一方で
 ex) By contrast, a decline was seen in two in three patients who received a placebo.

 ex) By using an existing medicine, we may be able to overcome this disease.

・acknowledge:認める、認識する ※豆知識参照
・test subject:被験者
 ex) The researchers acknowledged that the number of test subjects was limited, so they will need to conduct further trials.

【 豆知識:知られた病名は名前だけで通じる 】

・Parkinson’s:パーキンソン病(正式にはParkinson’s disease)
・Alzheimer’s:アルツハイマー病(正式にはAlzheimer’s disease)

【 豆知識:help+動詞原形 】

【 豆知識:"acknowledge" と “acknowledgment" 】
・(アメリカ英語)acknowledgment  ※ledgの後ろに"e"が付かない!

カナダ永住権申請後に届くお知らせ「AOR」は “Acknowledgement Of Recipt" の略で、「受け取りの確認通知書」ということ。
また、「Immigration and citizenship」のAORに関するHelpサイトに

If we begin to process your application, we’ll send you an acknowledgement of receipt letter or email with an application number.

We don’t send an acknowledgement of receipt until we have opened your application and checked that it’s complete. There may be a delay between the date we receive your application and the date we open it.



※この語彙同様にビザ絡みで良く出てくる “exempt" も、↓の豆知識参照。

EU ガス使用量15%削減で合意

【 語彙・表現 】
 ex) Members of the European Union have agreed to voluntarily cut their gas use by 15 percent to prepare for possible disruptions of supplies from Russia.

・European Commission:EUの執行機関である「ヨーロッパ委員会」
 ex) Energy ministers on Tuesday agreed to reduce gas usage between August and next March based on a proposal by the European Commission.

・resistance「抵抗 [rizstəns]
 ex) The proposal, which initially called for a mandatory cut, faced resistance from some members.

・exempt A from B:AをBから除外する、免除する ※豆知識参照
 ex) In a compromise deal, the EU decided to exempt island nations that are not connected to other members’ gas networks from the 15-percent cut.

・(be) subject to ~:~の対象となる、影響下にある
 ex) Others will also be exempt or subject to smaller cuts depending on the situation.

・news conference:記者会見
・the table:(正式な)会議(交渉)の場
・prepare for the worst:最悪の事態に備える
 ex) EU Commissioner Kadri Simson said in a news conference that “there was consensus around the table about preparing for the worst.

【 豆知識:"exempt" の再確認 】
(ex-(外に)+ empt(取る)、「取り除く」という意味のラテン語から)

be exempted from ~:~から除外される、免除される
 ex) The top 10 students were exempted from the exam.  「その試験を免除された」

 ex) The products at duty-free stores are exempt from certain taxes. 「一定の税が免除される」


一つ上の「iPS細胞が・・・」の回に出てきた “acknowledge" 同様、この “exempt" もビザ絡みで頻繁に出てくるのでついでに確認。

U.S. citizens are exempt from the eTA requirement and must carry proper identification such as a valid U.S. passport.