NHKニュースで学ぶ現代英語 2023年2月勉強分④


・run a course:コース(講座)を開催する、実施する
・land mine:地雷
・ordnance:軍需品、弾薬類 [ɔ́rdnəns]
 ex) They’ve run a training course in Cambodia on how to remove land mines and other unexploded ordnance.

 ex) Part of the training took place in an area still littered with mines from previous conflicts.

・metal detector:金属探知機
 ex) The members practiced with metal detectors provided by Japan.

 ex) Ukrainian authorities say mines and other explosives are a problem that affects about a quarter of their country’s total land area.

・draw up:(文書を)作成する
 ex) They’re drawing up how-to manuals on land mine removal and sending experts to Ukraine’s neighbor Poland.

・like ~
・…, such as ~
・such … as … :例えば~のような~
・…, etc.
・~ and more

・and other ~
・and some other ~
・~ and elsewhere :~などの場所

・include ~
・…, including ~
・…, mainly ~ :「…、主に~です

欧米 ウクライナに戦車供与へ

・grapple:全力を尽くして成し遂げるために)取り組む、努力する [grǽpəl] ※豆知識参照
・tank:戦車 [tǽŋk]
 ex) Western allies have grappled for months over sending tanks to Ukraine.

・relent to pressure:圧力に屈する(折れる)
 ex) Those in Germany finally relented to the pressure.

・jet fuel:ジェット燃料
 ex) U.S. officials have said their main battle tank is tough to train on, hard to maintain, and needs to run on jet fuel.

・battalion:大隊 [bətǽljən]
 ex) They’ve agreed to send 31 of them, enough for a battalion.

・shoulder to shoulder:肩と肩を寄せ合って、肩を並べて → お互いに協力して
 ex) The United States, standing shoulder to shoulder with our allies and partners, is going to continue to do all we can to support Ukraine.

 ex) Chancellor Olaf Scholz announced they would provide 14 of their main tanks, which are made in Germany.

 ex) Russian officials have scolded German leaders for abandoning their “historical responsibility.”

<豆知識:"grapple" のイメージ>


grapple with …「~に取り組む」という表現も、しばしば使われる。

grappler(grapple + er):(レスリングの)レスラー

“終末時計” 人類最後の日まで過去最短

 ex) They remind us how close we could be to “doomsday.”

・annihilation:絶滅、全滅 [ənàiəléiʃən]
 ※動詞のannihilate:anan-(意味を強める働き)+ nihil「虚無、無、無価値なもの」(nihilism:「ニヒリズム、虚無主義、無政府主義」)+ -ate(「~にする」)
 ex) Almost a year after Russia invaded Ukraine, they say the threat of annihilation is “unprecedented.”

・bulletin:公報、会報、報告書、学会誌 [búlitn]
・atomic scientist:原子力科学者
・The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists:ブレティン・オブ・ジ・アトミック・サイエンティスツ(原子力科学者会報、アメリカの科学雑誌)
・Doomsday Clock:終末時計
・forward ~:〔計画などを〕進める、促進させる
 ex) The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists moved the “Doomsday Clockforward 10 seconds.

・thinly veiled:薄く覆われた → 見え透いた、事実上の
 ex) Russia’s thinly veiled threats to use nuclear weapons remind the world that escalation of the conflict by accident, intention, or miscalculation is a terrible risk.

・pose:引き起こす、もたらす [póuz]
 ex) The clock was created in 1947 to comment on the nuclear threat posed by the Cold War.

・account for ~:~を考慮する
 ※「化学兵器」なら、chemical weaponなど
 ex) In recent years, it’s expanded to account for other risks, like bioweapons, climate change, and disinformation.

<豆知識:時刻を表す際の “to" “past" の違い>
・90 seconds to midnight:午前0時の90秒
・90 seconds past midnight:午前0時の90秒過ぎ


・archaeologist /archeologist:考古学者 [ɑ̀rkiɑ́lədʒist]
・may have+過去分詞:~したかもしれない
・unearth:un + earth「土に埋まった状態を逆にする」→ 掘り出す、発掘する
・national treasure:国の宝(だが国宝(文化財として指定される)かどうかは今後の研究に委ねられる)
 ex) We take you to Japan’s ancient capital of Nara, where archaeologists say they may have unearthed lost Japanese national treasures.

・date back to ~:~(時、時代など)にさかのぼる
・artifact:工芸品、加工品、人工物 [ɑ́rtifæ̀kt]
・one of a kind:唯一無二の存在、比類のない存在
 ex) A tomb dating back to the fourth century was hiding a pair of artifacts that could be one-of-a-kind.

・bronze:青銅 ※豆知識参照
 ex) The bronze mirror and the iron sword were recovered from Tomio Maruyama Tumulus.

・burial mound:古墳
・largest ~ of its kind:その種類として最大の~
 ex) It’s the largest burial mound of its kind in the country.

・(be) shaped like ~:~のような形をしている、~のように形作られている
 ex) The mirror is shaped like a shield, and its backside is decorated with images of gods and creatures.

・time period:期間
 ex) Researchers say it’s the largest of its kind from that time period ever discovered in East Asia.

 ex) They are masterpieces of metalwork from that era.

・sovereignty:主権、王権、支配権 [sɑ́vərənti]
 ex) Fukunaga says the items were likely made by skilled craftsmen during the Yamato Sovereignty.


・考古学:archaeology [ɑ̀rkiɑ́lədʒi]
・心理学:psychology [saikɑ́lədʒi]
・生物学:biology [baiɑ́lədʒi]
・人類学:anthropology [æ̀nθrəpɑ́lədʒi]
・社会学:sociology [sòusiɑ́lədʒi]
・生理学:physiology [fìziɑ́lədʒi]
・地震学:seismology [saizmʌ́lədʒi]

日産とルノー 出資比率“対等”で合意

・push for ~:~を強く求める、要求する
・equal:等しい(イコールな)もの、同等の人・もの [íːkwəl]
 ex) Nissan has been pushing for a partnership of equals.

・share:株式 ※豆知識参照
・hold a ~ percent share:株式全体のうち~パーセントを保有する(持ち株比率を示す表現)
 ex) Renault currently holds a 43-percent share of the Japanese firm.

 ex) Nissan wants that to be cut to 15 percent to match its stake in Renault.

・two sides:両者、双方
・decide on ~:~を決定する
 ex) The two sides have decided on the deal’s overall framework.

・place shares in a trust:株式を信託する
・sell off:売却する、売り払う
・in phases:段階的に
 ex) They agreed to reduce Renault’s stake by placing shares in a third-party trust to be sold off in phases.

・voting right:議決権、投票権
 ex) The companies would have equal voting rights in each other.

・unit:大きい物の一部 → ここではルノーから分社化してできる「子会社」
 ex) Nissan would also acquire up to 15 percent of Renault’s new electric vehicle unit.

・have one’s sights set on ~:~にねらいを定めている、~を視野に入れている
 ex) The revamped alliance has its sights set on new markets.

 ex) The officials say they are eyeing expansion in India as well as South and Central America.

<豆知識:"share" のコアの意味>


・share a prizeなら「共同受賞する」