NHKニュースで学ぶ現代英語 2022年7月勉強分②

太陽フレア” 被害想定の報告書

・communications ministry:総務省
 ex) Japan’s communications ministry has issued a report on the potential impact on Earth of huge bursts of radiation on the sun’s surface, known as solar flares.

 ex) Solar activity has a cycle and is likely to intensify around 2025, when solar flares are expected to become more frequent.

・magnetic field:磁気場
 ex) The report released by the ministry’s panel of experts on Tuesday describes the worst-case scenario, when solar flares cause disruption to the Earth’s magnetic field.

 ex) The report says mobile phone and TV broadcast services could become unavailable intermittently for two weeks.

 ※mal-で始まる単語は「誤って、不良な、悪意の」などの意味を含むことがある。ex) malnutrition:栄養不良
・preventive measureは「予防(対)策、予防措置
 ex) Power facilities could malfunction, causing blackouts unless preventive measures are taken.

blackout:明かりが消えて暗闇になる → 停電(1件の家から町全体まで停電全般を表せる)
power outage:送電停止のような、比較的大規模な停電

米連邦最高裁 中絶めぐる判断覆す

・The U.S. Supreme Court:アメリカの(連邦)最高裁判所 [supríːm]
 ※正式名称は “the Supreme Court of the United States"
・recognize ~:~を認める
 ex) The U.S. Supreme Court has overturned the landmark ruling that recognizes a woman’s right to abortion.

・A out of B:BのうちのA
 ex) Six out of nine justices favored upholding a Mississippi law that bans the procedure after 15 weeks.

・the people:(アメリカ)国民
 ex) The court said the authority to regulate abortion should be returned to the people and their elected representatives.

 ex) Members of a pro-choice organization say 26 of the country’s 50 states are now likely to implement bans or restrictions.

・cry tears of joy:うれし涙を流す
 ex) I was crying tears of joy when I found out.

 ex) This is slavery for the women of our country.

・(be) split on ~:~について意見(賛否)が分かれている
 ex) Americans have long been split on the issue.

NTT “勤務場所は自宅”が基本に

 ※基本イメージは「愛する人を両腕の中でぎゅっと抱きしめる」 語源:emb(~の中に)brace(腕)
・in a big way:大々的に
 ex) Japan’s biggest telecom company is about to embrace teleworking in a big way.

 ex) When they have to visit the office, it will be deemed a business trip.

・there will be no more ~:(今後はもはや)~をしない、~はなくなる
・compulsory:強制的な、義務的な [kəmpʌ́lsəri]
 ex) NTT says there will be no more compulsory transfers and no limits to travel expenses.

・if need be:もしも必要であれば
 ※= if needed, if necessary
 ex) Employees will be allowed to fly to the office if need be.

 ex) The company says the idea is to increase job satisfaction and help attract and retain talented people.

 ex) NTT and its group companies employ 180,000 people nationwide.

・work from home
・work remotely

 ex ) Employees will be allowed to fly to the office if need be.
・fly to ~:飛行機で~に行く、空の旅をする
・bike to ~:自転車で~に行く
・drive to ~:車で~に行く

ソニー パソコンゲーム事業を強化へ

・be to ~:~する予定である、~することになっている
 ※ (be) to+不定詞は確実性の高い未来を表す
・a line of ~:~の製品群、~のラインナップ、一連(の品ぞろえ)の~
・cater to ~:~(の需要)に応える
 ex) Sony Group is to launch a line of e-sports gear to cater to the increasing number of people it expects to play competitive video games on personal computers.

 ex) The monitors feature liquid crystal display technology Sony developed for its TVs to produce vivid color contrasts.

 ※"use" の硬い言い方
・spatial:空間の [spéiʃəl]
 ex) The headsets employ 360-degree spatial sound technology with faster audio-processing speed.

 ex) Playing e-sports on PCs has become mainstream. Sony estimates there are 5 million such players in Japan alone.


begin in ~:「~のニュースからお伝えします」というニュース番組を始めるときの表現で、その話題がトップニュースであることを示す。
・mark ~ years:~年の節目を迎える、記念する
・Chinese rule:中国の統治
 ex) We begin in Hong Kong, where the former British colony is marking 25 years since its return to Chinese rule.

・kick off:始める、開始する
・make a visit:訪問する
 ex) Anniversary events have kicked off, and China’s president is making his first visit since 2017.

・enact:(法律を)制定する [enǽkt]
・electoral:選挙の [iléktərəl]
 ex) By enacting the national security law and revising the electoral system, Hong Kong is now being ruled by patriots.

・Xi Jinping:習近平(国家主席)の英語表記(Xiはsheと同じ発音)
・inauguration:就任 [inɔ̀ːgjəréiʃən]
 ex) Xi Jinping spoke at an inauguration ceremony for Hong Kong’s new chief executive, John Lee Ka-chiu.

・greater democracy:民主主義の拡大
 ex) The anniversary used to be marked by massive protests from those calling for greater democracy.

・acts of violence:暴力行為
 ex) Police are warning against acts of violence or public disorder.

・police「警察」は集合名詞で複数として扱われるので、後ろは “are" になる。
 個々の「警察官」について言うのであれば、police officerなどを使う。
 ex) police are warning against acts of violence.