NHKニュースで学ぶ現代英語 2022年5月勉強分②



・restore ~:~を回復する、修復する
・intervertebral disk / spinal disk:椎間板
 ※intervertebral:椎間の [ìntəvə́ːtəbrəl]
・(be) derived from ~:~に由来する [diráivd]
  ex) Japanese scientists say they’ve successfully restored function to intervertebral disks in rats by implanting tissue derived from induced pluripotent stem cells, or iPS cells.

・lower back pain:腰痛



  ex) Executives at Japanese food makers hope to capitalize on growing consumer interest in vegetable-based diets.

・start ~ing:~し始める(ある程度継続する行為)
・an alternative to ~:~の代わりのもの
・dairyは:乳製品 ex) dairy food, dairy product
  ex) Some have started offering a range of plant-based alternatives to dairy and other foods.

・substitute:(普段使っているものの)代用品 ※ alternative は「(何かに取って代わる)選択肢」
  ex) The firm has launched a line of egg-free goods that use substitute ingredients.

・dietary needs:食生活上必要なもの
  ex) Our aim is to provide new options for diverse dietary needs.

・dietary restrictions:食事制限
  ex) If you have any dietary restrictions, please let me know.

・〇〇-and-rice:3つの単語をハイフンで繋いだ複合名詞 ex) omelet-and-rice, curry-and-rice
  ex) The firm has collaborated with a Tokyo startup to develop an egg-free omelet-and-rice dish.

・kidney bean:いんげん豆
  ex) The main ingredients are carrots and white kidney beans.

スターバックス プラスチック製品削減へ

・shift away from ~:~からの転換
・single-use:使用回数が1度限りの → 使い捨ての
  ex) The people at Starbucks Coffee Japan are continuing the shift away from single-use plastic.

・(be) set to ~:~することになっている
・in time for ~:~に間に合って、~に遅れずに
  ex) They're set to make more changes in April in time for a new law to encourage waste reduction and plastic recycling.

 ※まぶたは目のふたなので “eyelid"
  ex) Starbucks officials say their outlets will start serving cold drinks for eat-in customers without plastic lids.

・phase out:段階的に廃止する、縮減する
 ※phase ~:〔~を〕段階的に行う[計画する]
・in the lead-up to ~:~への準備として、~に至る過程で
  ex) Other coffee chains have also been phasing out plastic in the lead-up to the new law.

“They’ll test the change at about 100 stores from April 18 before expanding it to shops nationwide in the summer."
 ⇒ April 18は日付なので、口に出して言う場合は通例、April eighteenthと序数を入れる

(注文品を)持ち帰る:イギリス英語ではtake awayアメリカやカナダの英語ではtake out

 ↓"takeaway" が転じて

 ex) Let’s go over the takeaways from today’s meeting. 今日の会議のポイントを確認しましょう


  ex) best-ever:史上最高の strongest-ever:史上最強の
・whopping:途方もない、非常に大きい、ブワッという破裂音を表す言葉 [wɔ́piŋ]
  ex) International researchers say they’ve found the most distant star ever observed, a whopping 12.9 billion light-years from Earth.

・astronomer:天文学者 [əstrɑ́nəmər]
 ※astro-:星、天体 ex) astrology:占星術 [əstrɑ́lədʒi] astronaut:宇宙飛行士 [ǽstrənɔ̀t]
・celestial object:天体
 ※celestial:天の、天空の [səléstʃəl]  terrestrial:地上の、陸上の
  ex) The team includes astronomers from Japan’s Chiba University. It used the Hubble Space Telescope to spot the celestial object.

・〇〇 times ~:~の〇〇倍
 ※2倍の場合はtwice the size of ~
・mass:質量、塊、集団 [mǽs]
・the mass of ~:~の質量
  ex) The star, nicknamed “Earendel,” is estimated to be at least 50 times the mass of the sun.

・record for ~:~の記録
  ex) The researchers say it’s about 4 billion light-years farther than the previous record for an observed distant star.

・gravitational lensing:重力レンズ
  ex) They were able to detect the star due to a phenomenon called gravitational lensing, which made the star appear brighter.

・meaning ・・・:つまり・・・
・give birth to ~:~を生む、~を生み出す、~を誕生させる
  ex) Light from the star traveled 12.9 billion years before reaching Earth, meaning it existed about 900 million years after the Big Bang gave birth to the universe.

・a window into/on ~:~を見る手立て、~について知る方法
・dawn:夜明け → 幕開け、(物事の)始まり
  ex) Astronomers say the discovery opens a new window into the dawn of the cosmos.

“Light from the star traveled 12.9 billion years before reaching Earth, meaning it existed about 900 million years after the Big Bang gave birth to the universe."

1million =100万 → 10million =1000万 → 100million =1億
9million = 900万
90milion =9000万
900million =9億

100million =1億(0.1billion) → 1000million =10億=1billion
0.1billion =1億
1billion =10億
10billion =100億
12.9billion =129億



・work on ~:~に取り組む、~に取りかかる
  ex) Some Japanese companies are working on technologies that allow people to operate devices with their hands or fingers without actually touching them.

・germ:ばい菌、細菌、病原菌など目に見えない「微生物」を広く指す [dʒə́ːrm]
・amid ~:~の真っ最中に
  ex) The contactless systems can help stop the spread of germs amid the pandemic.

  ex) The screen is attached to conventional touch panels.
・electrical current:電流
 ※current:流れ ocean current:海流 air current:気流 current of public opinion:世論の動向
  ex) It detects changes in the weak electrical current between the screen and the user’s finger.再生

・jointly develop:共同で開発する(決まったフレーズ)
 ※joint development:共同開発
  ex) Major electronic parts supplier Alps Alpine has jointly developed a system with Utsunomiya University, north of Tokyo.

・apply A to B:AをBに応用する、適用する
・projected light:空中に投影された映像
  ex) This applies touchless technology to projected light that mimics button controls.

・bring A close to B:AをBに近づける
  ex) Users can operate a device merely by bringing their finger close to the symbols.