Native Camp 文法中級の総まとめ ③ 仮定

現在 → 未来に起こり得る仮定(直接法)


if 〇〇 ~,   ×× will ・・・.
   現在形  ↑未来形(will)

<教材:中級26, 中級31>
“If it rains, I will stay home with my son."
“If he keeps trying, he will find a new job."

現在、実現の可能性が低い仮定( “if" の仮定法過去)

「もし~だったら、・・・だろう(ほぼ実現しない前提)」の場合は、"if" を使った仮定法過去にする。

if 〇〇 ~,   ×× would ・・・.
   ↑過去形  ↑助動詞の過去形
※助動詞はcould, would, should ,might

<教材:中級27, 中級31>
“If I won the lottery, I would buy a property in Japan."
“If the police had enough evidence, they could arrest the suspect."
“If she studied hard, she would be able to become a doctor."
“If he loved her, he would marry her."
“If I had my wallet, I could lend you some money."

過去に実現しなかった仮定( “if" の仮定法過去完了)


if 〇〇 had ~,   ×× would have ・・・.
   ↑過去完了形  ↑助動詞+過去完了形
※助動詞はcould, would, should ,might

<教材:中級46, 中級52>
“If the fireman had been late, the girl wouldn’t have been saved."
“If we had missed the bus, we wouldn’t have got/gotten to work on time."
“If they had been invited, they would have gone to the meeting."
“We would have driven more if there had been more gas in the car."

現在、実現の可能性が低い願望( “I wish" の仮定)

「~だったらいいのになぁ(願望に過ぎない)」の場合は、"I wish" を使った仮定法過去にする。

I wish ×× ・・・.

<教材:中級28, 中級31>
“I wish I were an astronaut."
“I wish I had a car."
“I wish I could drink alcohol."
“I wish it were raining today."

実現しなかった過去の後悔( “I wish" の仮定)


I wish ×× had ・・・.

<教材:中級49, 中級52>
“I wish you had told me about that earlier."
“She wishes her father had won the lottery."
“I wish I could have known about his illness earlier."

I wish ×× had ・・・. = I should have ・・・ で言い換えられる

<教材:中級49, 中級52>
“I wish I had known about the new products." = “I should have asked you earlier."
“I wish I had gone to the party with you." = “I should have called you."
“I wish he had made it on time." = “He should have driven faster."

I wish ×× had ・・・. = If only xx had ・・・ で言い換えられる

<教材:中級49, 中級52>
“If only I had been married to Cameron Diaz."
“If only I had not known the fact that he’s married."

まるで~のよう( “as if" / “as though" の仮定)

「(実際にはそうではないかもしれないけれど)まるで~のよう」の場合は、as if + 仮定法過去にする。

~ as if S ・・・.
① ~が現在形:「・・・のようだ」
② ~が過去形:「・・・のようだった」

<教材:中級60, 中級65>
①"She always daydreams as if she were trying to get away from reality."
①"My parents often treat me as if I were only eight years old."
①"Our neighbors act as if they were rich and they had everything."

②"The police talked to me as if my husband were the primary suspect."
②"I felt as if he were in a dream."
②"He talked as if he knew everything."

「(実際にはそうではないかもしれないけれど)まるで~だったかのよう」の場合は、as if + 仮定法過去完了にする。

~ as if S had ・・・.
① ~が現在形:「・・・だったかのようだ」
② ~が過去形:「・・・だったかのようだった」

①"She looks as if she had been ill."
①"He looks happy as if nothing had occurred."

②"She looked as if she had been ill."
②"She acted as if she had never met me before."

Native Camp文法

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