NHKニュースで学ぶ現代英語 2024年4月勉強分②

空き時間で働ける 仲介サービス広がる

・gig work:短時間や単発の仕事を受ける働き方

Matchmaking services for short-term workers are growing in Japan, in tandem with a rise in the number of people looking for “gig work” to fill their free time.
・matchmaking service:(仕事の)仲介サービス
・in tandem with ~:~と並行して、~と協力して、~と同時に

Mercari is best known for its flea market app. It entered the job search business this month.

Customers can use an app to quickly find work that lasts as little as one hour.
・as little as ~:最短で~、わずか~、たったの~

There is no need for interviews or preparing resumes.

Another provider, Timee, started posting part-time positions last month with an option for applicants to become permanent hires down the road.
・permanent hire:(臨時的ではない)永続的な(長期の)被雇用者
・down the road:この道の先の方で → 将来いつか、ゆくゆくは

Sharefull has launched an app that notifies users of permanent positions based on their past experience and performance.
・notify A of ~:Aに~を通知する、知らせる

Yano Research Institute believes the market for such services in Japan is set to grow sharply.
・be set to ~:(間違いなく)~しそうである、~することになっている

It sees 27-percent growth for this fiscal year from the previous period to become worth more than 82 billion yen, or 560 million dollars.

【 豆知識:お客に関する語彙の違い 】

大谷選手 賭博問題への関与否定


Japanese star Ohtani Shohei has spoken up about the scandal everyone else in baseball is speaking about.
・in baseball:野球に関わる、野球界の

He has kept quiet since his former interpreter was accused of illegal gambling and “massive theft.”

But now, he’s shared his side of the story.
・ one’s side of the story:(別の人の言い分だけが取り上げられている状況において)~の側の話、~の言い分、~から見ての話

Ohtani held a news conference at the Los Angeles Dodgers stadium to address the allegations that surfaced last week around his camp.
・surface:(問題などが)明るみに出る、表面化する、(潜水艦などが)浮上する [sə́ːrfis]

U.S. media reported Mizuhara Ippei had amassed debts with an illegal bookmaker of 4.5 million dollars.
・amass:蓄える、築く、ためこむ [əmǽs]

The team fired him, and Ohtani’s lawyers are accusing him of wiring money from Ohtani’s bank account.

Ohtani says he didn’t know about the debt nor about Mizuhara’s gambling addiction until Mizuhara spoke last week to the team.

He says it’s “really hard” to verbalize how he is feeling right now.

But he says he's saddened and shocked that someone he trusted has done this.
・be saddenedは「悲しんでいる、悲しい思いをさせられている

輪島朝市 金沢で出張開催


The massive earthquake that struck central Japan on New Year’s Day devastated parts of Wajima City in Ishikawa Prefecture.
・ devastate:(土地や街などに)大損害を与える、(人を精神的に)打ちのめす、圧倒する

The city has been unable to host its famous morning market.

But locals on Saturday were able to shop at an outdoor event again for the first time since the disaster.

Vendors set up a temporary market in the prefectural capital of Kanazawa City.

Twenty-nine shops took part in the event. That is only one-third of the usual number.

People were able to buy dried fish. They were also able to purchase Wajima lacquerware that survived the disaster.
・dried fish:魚の干物

“We have no idea what will happen in the future. Times are often hard and occasionally we feel helpless. But it was our goal to hold the market here today, so everyone will take heart and stay strong.”
・take heart:元気を出す、勇気を出す

The organizer says she will continue to participate in efforts to reconstruct her hometown.

【 豆知識:同格のofの訳し方 】


the prefectural capital of Kanazawa City


(1)意味をはっきりさせた訳し方: 「金沢市という県庁所在地」「金沢市という名称の県庁所在地」
(2)イコールを意識して前から訳すと: 「県庁所在地すなわち金沢市」「県庁所在地である(ところの)金沢市」
(3)自然な日本語に意訳すると: 「県庁所在地の金沢市」「金沢と呼ばれる県庁所在地」

日銀 マイナス金利政策を解除

・BOJ:日本銀行(the Bank of Japan)

The Bank of Japan marks a landmark shift away from its massive monetary stimulus.
 ※仕事におけるday shift「日勤」とnight shift「夜勤」の「シフト」は、「交代」の意味から。動詞では「(位置や方向を)変える
・landmark shift:歴史的な転換点
・monetary stimulus:金融緩和策

The central bank has decided to end its negative interest rate policy and raise borrowing rates for the first time in 17 years.
・negative interest rate:マイナス金利
・borrowing rate:借入金利

It will also abandon its yield-curve control framework, which holds down long- and short-term interest rates.
・hold down:抑え込む

The policymakers announced the move after winding up their two-day meeting on Tuesday. They have decided to end the bank’s negative rate policy.
・the policymakers:(日銀の)政策決定者(日銀総裁をはじめとする金融政策決定会合に関わる人々)
・wind up:終える、終わりにする
 ※「(時計のぜんまいを)巻き上げる」ことから。wind downは「(ぜんまいが)ほどける」ことから、「(緊張が)緩む、ゆっくりくつろぐ」ことを表す。
 例) Give yourself time to wind down before going to bed.「寝る前にくつろぐ時間を作ろう」

The central bank assessed the virtuous cycle between wages and prices and judged that its price stability target of 2 percent inflation would be sustainably achieved.
・virtuous cycle / virtuous circle:好循環
 ※反対に「悪循環」はvicious cycle / vicious circleで。どちらもニュース英語ではしばしば使われる表現。
・price stability target:物価安定目標

Policymakers say they will encourage the overnight call rate to remain at around zero to 0.1 percent.
・the overnight call rate:(無担保)コールレート、無担保コール翌日物金利

The central bank’s interest rate hike is the first since February 2007.
・interest rate hike:金利の引き上げ、利上げ

The BOJ also decided not to continue purchasing exchange-traded funds and Japan real estate investment trusts.
・exchange-traded fund:上場投資信託(ETF)
・real estate:不動産
・investment trust:投資信託
・real estate investment trust:不動産投資信託(REIT)

アフガニスタン 新学期も女性の通学を制限


We turn now to Afghanistan, where a new school year has started, but without girls.

The Taliban have prohibited female students from receiving education beyond the sixth grade.

The move has drawn growing international criticism.

Schools across Afghanistan began classes this week for the new academic year.

The Taliban have been governing the country based on their own interpretation of Islamic law since retaking power three years ago.
・ interpretation:解釈

The group has barred women from higher education.

This 14-year-old girl says she’s very disappointed.

She had prepared a bag and a uniform, hoping the Taliban would allow them to join classes.

“It’s very painful that schools are still closed to us. I want authorities to reopen them. Girls also have dreams of becoming doctors or engineers in the future.”