NHKニュースで学ぶ現代英語 2022年9月勉強分③


・(be) in the air:「(雰囲気・気配が辺りに)漂って
・fall on ~:(休日・行事・日程などが)~にあたる
 ※ ex) Halloween falls on a Monday this year.
 ex) Independence Day this year has a different tone and tension in the air, as the holiday falls on the half-year mark since Russia began its invasion.

・hold on:「持ちこたえる、ふんばる
・clench ~:~を握りしめる
 ※clench one’s fists in anger:怒りで拳を握りしめる、clench one’s teeth:歯を食いしばる
 ex) We’ve been holding on for six months. It is difficult for us, but we clenched our fists fighting for our fate.

・go through:(困難・試練・苦しみなどを)経験する
 ※He went through a divorce last year.
 ex) Each new day is a new reason not to give up, because having gone through so much, we have no right not to reach the end.

・The British defense ministry:イギリス国防省
 ※アメリカの中央情報局CIA = Central Intelligence Agency
 ex) The British defense ministry released an intelligence update on Wednesday about the invasion.

 ex) It reports Moscow is making minimal progress in the offensive against Ukraine’s eastern region of Donbas.

・morale:士気 [mərǽl]
 ※moral(教訓、モラル(品行)道徳の [mɔ́rəl])と混同しないよう注意。
 ex) It says Russia is suffering from shortages of munitions and personnel, and there’s poor morale in many parts of the military.

イチローさん マリナーズ球団殿堂入り

・induct A into ~:Aを~(役職や地位など)に就かせる、就任させる
・the Hall of Fame:プロスポーツや音楽等で活躍した人々の殿堂
 ※Hall of Famer:殿堂入りを果たした選手
 ex) Japanese baseball legend Suzuki Ichiro has been inducted into the Hall of Fame of his former team, the Seattle Mariners.

・take place:行われる、開催される
 ex) A ceremony took place on Saturday at the team’s home field.

・give a welcome:歓迎する
・enthusiastic:熱狂的な、熱烈な [inθjùːziǽstik]
 ex) The crowd gave him an enthusiastic welcome.

・reflect on ~:~を振り返る、回顧する
 ex) Ichiro reflected on his career in a speech.

・have kind words for ~:~に温かい言葉をかける
 ex) Ichiro had many kind words for his fans.

・make an appearance:出場する、出演する、登場する
 ex) He made several All-Star Game appearances and achieved 200 hits in each of his first 10 seasons.

<豆知識:"reflect" の別の意味>
reflect:re-「もとに」+ flect「曲げる」
 ex) The stunning dress reflected her excellent taste. 「その美しいドレスは、彼女の趣味の良さを表していた。」

 ex) reflect on his mistakes:反省する
 ex) reflect on his career:(懐かしく)振り返る

モデルナ ファイザーなどを提訴

・pharmaceutical:製薬の [fɑ̀rməsúːtikəl]
 ex) U.S. pharmaceutical firm Moderna says it is suing rival drugmakers Pfizer and German partner BioNTech over the mRNA technology they use to make their COVID-19 vaccines.

・file a lawsuit:訴訟を起こす
 ex) Moderna is alleging patent infringement and says it filed lawsuits on Friday in the U.S. and Germany.

 ex) The firm says Pfizer and BioNTech copied what it calls “groundbreaking technology,” without its permission, to produce their vaccine.

・seek to ~:~しようとする、~しようと努力する
 ex) Moderna says it isn’t seeking to remove the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine from the market.

・take A by surprise:A(人など)を驚かす、Aの不意をつく
・proprietary:property(財産)を誰かが所有している → 独占的に所有する、(特許権などで守られていて)独占所有権のある [prəpráiətèri]
 ex) A Pfizer spokesperson told Reuters that the litigation took them by surprise and claimed their vaccine was based on proprietary mRNA technology created by BioNTech.

ニュース報道のように中立の立場で表現する場合は、 say, claim, allegeを使い、誰が言っているのかという情報の出所を明確にする。そしてその内容はその情報源による主張にすぎず、言っていることが事実なのかどうかは分からないことを示す。

 ex) The firm says Pfizer and BioNTech copied what it calls “groundbreaking technology.”「述べている」

 ex) A Pfizer spokesperson claimed their vaccine was based on proprietary mRNA technology.「ファイザーは主張した」

 e) Moderna is alleging patent infringement.「モデルナは主張している」

UCC コーヒー豆調達で新基準

・a cup of joe:(アメリカ英語のスラング)1杯のコーヒー
 ex) A major Japanese coffee company wants to help people feel even better about their morning cup of joe.

 ex) UCC Holdings says it plans to move toward sustainable and ethical sourcing for its beans.

 ex) The company says its brands will only use coffee bean imports that meet its sustainability standards, such as production that conserves tropical rain forests.

・standard-compliant ~:基準を満たす~
 ex) The company says it will work with international NPOs to switch all coffee beans to standard-compliant ones by 2030.

・contribute to ~:「(良いことに)貢献する」だが、不都合なことに貢献するという場合は「~の一因となる、要因となる」[kəntríbjuːt]
 ex) Coffee production has contributed to the loss of tropical rain forests.

vulnerable:弱い、脆弱な [vʌ́lnərəb]
・(be) subject to ~:~の影響下にある、~の支配下にある
 ※注意書きなどの “Prices are subject to change without notice."「価格は予告なしに変更する場合があります」は、「価格は変更の影響下にある」ということ。
 ex) Vulnerable small-scale growers have also been subject to exploitation.

<豆知識:ニュース見出しの “to" の意味>
見出しの “to" は “be going to" “plan to" “want to" “will" 等が省略されたもので、近い未来や予定を表す。

このような見出しのルールは通常の文法とは異なるため、"headline grammar"「見出し文法」と呼ばれる。


・turn to ~:「次は~を見てみましょう」、(話題を)~に移す
 ex) Turning now to Britain, where Liz Truss has been elected as the next leader of the Conservative Party.

・succeed ~:~の後を継ぐ、~の後任になる
 ex) She will become prime minister on Tuesday, succeeding Boris Johnson.

 ex) I will deliver a bold plan to cut taxes and grow our economy.

・deliver on ~:~について(届けるべきものを)届ける → 結果を出す、約束を果たす、期待に添う、うまくやり遂げる
・energy crisis:エネルギー危機
 ex) I will deliver on the energy crisis, dealing with people’s energy bills, but also dealing with the long-term issues we have on energy supply.”

・step down:辞任する、辞める
 ex) The party held the election after Johnson said in July he would step down amid a series of scandals.

・exchequer:財務 [ékstʃekər]
・chancellor of the exchequer:イギリスの財務相
 ex) Truss defeated Rishi Sunak, who’s former chancellor of the exchequer.

・final round:決選投票
 ex) The main focus of their final round was the country’s soaring inflation.

・pledge to ~:~を誓う → ~するという公約を掲げる
 ex) Truss won after pledging to cut taxes immediately.

 ex) Truss is 47 years old and was first elected to Parliament in 2010.