NHKニュースで学ぶ現代英語 2022年9月勉強分①

CO2吸収する海藻 大量培養に成功

・dioxide:二酸化物 [daiɑ́ksàid]
・carbon dioxide:二酸化炭素(=CO2)
 ex) A Japanese construction company has come up with a way to cultivate large amounts of marine plants that can absorb carbon dioxide in the ocean.

・algae:藻(類)(algaの複数形) [ǽldʒiː]
・off ~:~沖で(に)
 ex) The company says it has reproduced a single seaweed algae cell and then successfully planted the seedlings in waters off a town south of Tokyo.

・carbon sequestration:炭素隔離
・also known as ~:~としても知られる、別名~
・contribute ~:~に貢献する
 ex) Carbon sequestration in coastal ecosystems, also known as “blue carbon,” is attracting attention as a way to contribute to decarbonization.

・seaweed bed:藻場
 ex) Japan has seen a decline of its offshore seaweed beds because of land reclamation and warmer ocean temperatures.

・nonprofit organization:非営利団体(=NPO)
 ex) Kajima says it intends to work with fisheries cooperatives and nonprofit organizations to rehabilitate the seaweed beds based on their research.

・green carbon:「グリーンカーボン」(森林が吸収する二酸化炭素)
・blue carbon:「ブルーカーボン」(海中で海の植物が光合成によって吸収する二酸化炭素)

<豆知識:語彙 “water" の使い方>
・英語では「冷たい水」と「お湯」を区別する言葉がないため、区別したい場合は、「冷たい水」ならcold water、「お湯」ならhot waterとする必要がある。


・"water" を使った表現の例
 "hold water":隙がない、水も漏らさない、筋が通る
 "throw cold water on ~":~に水を差す、けちをつける

 ex) That sounds like a good excuse, but it doesn’t hold water. (それはうまい言い訳に聞こえるけど、通用しないからね。)

“動物福祉”めざし 自動車のシートに変化

・~ of choice:一般的に好まれる~、よく使われる~
・upholstery:シートなどの骨組みを覆っているもの、(車について使う場合は、座席シートやハンドル、コンソールなど布(皮)張りされている)内装全般 [ʌphóulstəri]
・automobile:自動車 [ɔ̀təməbíl]
 ex) Leather has long been the material of choice for upholstery in luxury automobiles.

・substitute A with B:AをBで代用する、Aの代わりにBを使う
 ※本来は “substitute B for A" だが、現在は “with" の方が良く使われる
 ※plant-based meat:代替肉
・in response to ~:~に応えて、~に反応して
 ex) But several carmakers are substituting it with plant-based materials in response to consumers’ growing awareness of animal welfare.

・feature ~:(商品などが)~を特徴とする、売りにする
・steering wheel:(自動車の)ハンドル」です。
 ※「ハンドル」は和製英語。オートバイや自転車の「ハンドル」は “handlebar"
 ex) Japan’s Toyota Motor says its Lexus EV models will feature seats and steering wheels with upholstery made from sugarcane and other plants.

・(be) associated with ~:~と関係がある、関連する
 ex) A Toyota chief engineer says that in the future, products associated with co-existence and sustainability will reflect a sense of luxury.

 ex) We tried to use sustainable materials as much as we could during the development process.

 ex) Swedish automaker Volvo says its vehicles will be completely leather-free by 2030.

・~ of the future:未来型の~、将来の~
 ※the city of the future:未来型の都市
 ex) Some BMW and Mercedes-Benz models have no leather inside. The German automakers are also doing research on leather alternatives of the future.

<豆知識:"sense of ~" の様々な訳>
・sense of accomplishment :達成感
・sense of security :安心感
・sense of duty:義務感
・sense of justice:正義感

・sense of color:色彩感覚
・sense of balance:バランス感覚
・sense of direction:方向感覚

・sense of competition:競争意識
・sense of beauty:美意識

<豆知識:"local" について>


・involve ~:~を関係させる、~と関わる
 ex) It involves a small biogas power plant developed by telephone giant NTT East and its group companies.

・(be) capable of ~ing:~する能力がある
 ※"(be) able to " や “can" よりも、主語が持つ「能力」に重点を置いた表現
 ex) The biogas plant is capable of generating electricity for 30 households per day from one ton of food scraps.

・byproduct / by-product:副産物
 ex) Children also gave plants fertilizer, which is a byproduct of the process.

・no use / (be) of no use:役に立たない、使い物にならない、使い道がない
・play a role:役に立つ、機能する
 ex) It’s amazing to see that what we thought had no use could play a role in our daily lives.

 ex) An NTT East official said an average food processing factory produces two tons of waste a day.

・incinerate:焼却処分にする [insínərèit]
 ex) It needs to pay to have the waste incinerated, increasing the burden on the environment.

<豆知識:"local" について>


“It needs to pay to have the waste incinerated, increasing the burden on the environment."


<豆知識:"doggie bag" について>
最近では、"doggie bag" の代わりに"Can I have a box?"と言うのが一般的になってきている。


・artificial intelligence:人工知能、AI
・crack down on ~:~に断固たる措置を取る、~を(厳しく)取り締まる
・illicit:違法な、法律違反の、社会のルールに反した [ilísit]
・illicit sale:不正販売
・exclusive goodsは:他では販売していない特別な商品、非売品などの限定グッズ
 ex) Japan’s professional sports organizations are using artificial intelligence to crack down on illicit sales of exclusive goods on internet auction sites.

 ex) One case involves uniforms issued by Kawasaki Frontale. It’s a J1 League soccer squad.

 ex) We want to deter resales.

・to that end:その(目的の)ために
 ex) To that end, we will manage data on the goods. We want the resellers to know that.

植物由来の食材 外食業界で広がる

・as ~:~する中
 ex) That’s as more consumers express concern about their health and the environment.

・animal-derived / animal-origin:動物由来の
 ex) Noodle soup chain Ippudo started selling bowls of ramen without any animal-derived ingredients from early July at one of its restaurants in Tokyo.

・signature:署名 → 特徴的な、代表的な
 ※signature taste:(店の)看板の味、signature dish:看板料理
 ex) The company uses soy milk, plant oil, and vegetables to recreate its signature taste.

・private sector:民間部門、民間企業
 ex) Private-sector research firm TPC Marketing Research says the domestic market for plant-based alternative foods will likely top half a billion dollars in fiscal 2025.

・in ~ terms (of):~換算で
 ex) That would be up nearly three times in yen terms over five years.

・ラーメン:ramenでも通じるが、ニュースでは “noodle soup"
・ラーメンの数え方:a bowl of ramen

代替肉は最初の頃は “fake meat" と呼ばれていた。

・dishes made only with plant-based ingredients
・plant-based alternative foods

代替肉(meat substitutes)
・plant-based meat substitutes / plant-based meat(植物を原料とした肉の代用品、植物由来の代替肉)
・soy meat(大豆ミート)
・pea protein meat(エンドウ豆ミート)

・cultured meat
・cultivated meat ※cultivated:栽培された
・lab-grown meat