NHKニュースで学ぶ現代英語 2022年7月勉強分①

成人年齢 18歳に引き下げ

・age of majority:成人年齢
 ex) Japan is welcoming 18- and 19-year-olds into adulthood, lowering the legal age of majority for the first time in more than a century.

・the revised Civil Code:改正民法
・take out a loan:ローンを組む、ローンの契約を行う
 ex) But the revised Civil Code will let them make many adult decisions without their parents. That includes getting a credit card or taking out a loan.

・prey on ~:~を食い物にする、餌食にする
 ex) The change has some people worried that fraudsters will use this opportunity to prey on young victims.

・come of age:成年に達する
 ex) I realized yesterday that I was coming of age today.

・grapple with ~:(問題を解決するために)取り組む、~と格闘する
・aging society:高齢化(しつつある)社会
 ex) Japan is grappling with an aging society, declining birth rate, and shortage of workers.

・take a roleは「役割を担う、役割を果たす
 ex) The government hopes that lowering the legal age of adulthood will encourage teens to take a more active role in society.

<豆知識:teen/teenager の語源とそれ以外の10代の呼び方>

また10歳から12歳までの人は “preteen" や “tween" などと呼ばれる。


 ※ “to" は特にアメリカ英語では省略されることが多々ある。
・germ:ばい菌、細菌、病原菌など、目に見えない微生物を広く指す [dʒə́ːrm]
・amid ~:~の真ん中に、~の渦中に
 ex) The contactless systems can help stop the spread of germs amid the pandemic.

・LCD:= “liquid crystal display"「液晶ディスプレイ」の略語
 ex) LCD panel maker Japan Display has come up with a screen that makes existing devices touchless.

・current:流れ → electrical current:電流
 ※ocean current:海流 air current:気流などの物理的な現象 current of public opinion:世論の動向
 ex) The screen is attached to conventional touch panels. It detects changes in the weak electrical current between the screen and the user’s finger.

・jointly develop:共同で開発する
 ex) Major electronic parts supplier Alps Alpine has jointly developed a system with Utsunomiya University, north of Tokyo.

・merely:ただ単に = only
・merely by ~ing:ただ~することによって
 ex) Users can operate a device merely by bringing their finger close to the symbols.


・take part in ~:~に参加する、出場する
・for the first time in ~:~で初めて、~ぶりに
 ex) The Japanese government has taken part in Canada’s largest food fair for the first time in 15 years.

・part of ~:~の一環、~の一部
・food exports:食品輸出
 ex) It’s part of an effort to raise food exports to 5 trillion yen, or nearly 40 billion dollars, by 2030.

 ex) The three-day event features more than 500 booths showcasing cuisines from around the world.

・team up with ~:~と組む、~と連携する
・the Japan External Trade Organization(JETRO):日本貿易振興機構
・set upは「立てる、設立する、設置する
 ex) The Japanese government teamed up with the Japan External Trade Organization to set up a booth.

・serve up:(料理を)出す、提供する
・a range of ~:さまざまな~
・striped jack:シマアジ
 ex) They are serving up a range of regional specialties, including striped jack from Ehime, sake brewed in Fukushima, and premium beef from Iwate.

・fillet:(動詞)(魚を)おろす [fílit]
・clean a fish:魚をさばく、魚の内臓などを取り除いて処理する
 ex) The booth is also holding live demonstrations, including a fish filleting and cleaning show, and a demonstration of an automatic rice-ball maker.

ウォーホル作品 250億円で落札

・pop artist:ポップアート、大衆芸術(pop art)の作家
 ※pop art:大衆文化(popular culture)を題材に描いた作品・芸術表現
・make A out of B:BからAを作り出す、BをAにする
 ex) U.S. pop artist Andy Warhol made icons out of anything – cans of soup, even bananas.

 ex) But he also depicted one of Hollywood’s most famous women.

・go under the hammer:オークション(競売)にかけられる
 ※hammer price:落札価格
 ex) His portrait of Marilyn Monroe has just gone under the hammer, setting a record for an artwork from the 20th century.

 ex) “Shot Sage Blue Marilyn” fetched 195 million dollars at an auction in New York.

・surpassは:上回る、超える [sərpǽs]
 ex) The price surpassed the previous record, for Pablo Picasso’s “Women of Algiers.”

・put ~ up for auction:~をオークションにかける
 ※put ~ up for sale:~を売りに出す
・proceeds:何かをしたり売ったりすることで得られたお金 → 売り上げ
 ex) The Swiss foundation that put it up for auction plans to use the proceeds to improve children’s healthcare and education.


 ex) Tens of millions of people spent another day baking under intense heat.

 ex) Central Tokyo logged 35.1 degrees Celsius.

・call on A to ~:Aに~するよう正式・公式に求める
・power grid:送電(線)網
 ex) Officials in the Kanto region are calling on households and businesses to reduce their burden on the power grid.

 ex) For the first time under a new advisory system, residents got an alert, calling on them to lower energy usage between 3 and 6 p.m.

 ex) Officials of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government met on Monday to confirm their energy-saving plan.

・multifunction:多機能の [mʌ́ltifʌ̀ŋkʃən]
 ex) The officials agreed to ask businesses to reduce the use of elevators and multifunction printers.

<豆知識:温度 Celsius と Fahrenheit>
温度を言うときには、… degreesの後ろにCelsiusまたはFahrenheitを付ける

<豆知識: half の使い方>
half past 11:11時を過ぎて半分なので、11時半
half a year:a year(1年)の半分なので、6か月
half a century:a century(100年)の半分なので、50年

<豆知識: 「ある時点」以外の “as of" の使い方>
 ex) Most elementary school students will be on summer vacation as of July 21.